Technical Aspects of Minimal Residual Disease Detection by Multicolor Flow Cytometry in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

IV Galtseva, YuO Davydova, NM Kapranov, KA Nikiforova, EN Parovichnikova

National Research Center for Hematology, 4 Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167

For correspondence: Yuliya Olegovna Davydova, MD, PhD, 4 Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167; Tel.: 8(495)612-62-21; e-mail:

For citation: Galtseva IV, Davydova YuO, Kapranov NM, et al. Technical Aspects of Minimal Residual Disease Detection by Multicolor Flow Cytometry in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients. Clinical oncohematology. 2021;14(3):503–12. (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-4-503-512


Detection and monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) are essential components of programmed therapy.They are crucial for the choice of treatment strategy and for prognostic purposes practically in all hematologic diseases. MRD is often detected by multicolor flow cytometry, the method with fairly high specificity and sensitivity. However, to identify MRD in acute myeloid leukemia patients is one of the most challenging tasks flow cytometry specialists are faced with. Cytometric data analysis requires the expert knowledge of immunophenotype of all maturing bone marrow cells. Besides, MRD analysis in acute myeloid leukemia has not been standardized while approaches suggested by different studies vary considerably. The present paper reports the experience of MRD analysis, demonstrates the gating strategy, immunophenotype description of normal non-tumor hematopoietic cells, and presents some examples of MRD assessment. Additionally, panels of monoclonal antibodies are provided, along with an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: minimal residual disease, acute myeloid leukemias, flow cytometry, gating, immunophenotyping.

Received: June 9, 2021

Accepted: September 5, 2021

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