Quality of life in adolescent and young adult Hodgkin’s lymphoma survivors

Ye.G. Arshanskaya1,2, S.V. Semochkin2,3, and A.G. Rumyantsev2,3

1 S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital, Moscow, Russian Federation

2 Federal Clinical-and-Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology n.a. Dmitriy Rogachev, Moscow, Russian Federation

3 N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, RF Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russian Federation


Background. Deterioration of quality of life (QoL) and late complications of antitumor therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) are the important medical issues, since they mostly relate to young patients with a high life-expectancy.

Objective. The study was to compare QoL of HL survivors versus healthy young adults.

Methods. 56 (22 males and 34 females) HL survivors with a median age of 27.5 (range 22–41) were evaluated. For the purpose of comparison, 94 (44 males and 50 females) healthy subjects with a median age of 28.0 (range 22–46) were enrolled into the study of QoL. All HL survivors were treated in our hospital according to the modified pediatric protocol DAL-HD-90 in 1997–2007. QoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) which enabled generating 8 separate scales and 2 final scores (0 = worst possible health, 100 = best possible health). All survivors were in complete remission of HL for ³ 5 years.

Results. The HL survivors had the lower scores than the normal controls according to all scales and SF-36. Statistically significant differences were found in: general health — 53.4 (95 %CI 47.8–59.1) vs. 72.3 (68.8–75.8; < 0,001), vitality — 54.7 (50.4–59.1) vs. 72.2 (69.3–75.2; < 0.001), and mental health — 57.4 (53.5–61.4) vs. 71.7 (68.6–74.8; < 0.001). The patients at the age ³ 18.5 years (ROC-curves; = 0.047) at the time of HL diagnosis had poorer QoL when compared to younger patients with respect to: general health — 48.3 (41.3–55.2) vs. 60.9 (51.6–70.2; = 0.027): vitality — 50.3 (44.7–55.9) vs. 61.1 (51.6–70.2; = 0.013). The patients with the unfavorable events including relapse (n = 6) and second malignancy (n = 2) showed the lowest scores of QoL, especially in physical role performance [34.4 (2.6–71.3) vs. 79.7 (77.8–89.6; = 0.002)] and emotional role performance [25.0 (7.5–57.5) vs. 77.8 (67.1–88.4; < 0.001)]. Duration of remission, age at the QoL evaluation, gender, therapy intensity (2, 4, or 6 cycles of primary chemotherapy plus radiotherapy), Ann-Arbor stages, bulky disease, current married status, and education levels showed no significant influence on the QoL parameters.

Conclusion. Long-term HL survivors had poorer physical and mental QoL than the general population of young adults. The age at the time of LH diagnosis ³ 18.5 years was associated with significantly reduced QoL. The relapsed HL and second malignancies were mostly associated with the deterioration of physical and emotional role functioning that may indicate uncertainty of patients about future well-being.

Keywords: Hodgkin’s lymphoma, quality of life, adolescents, young adults, DAL-HD-90, SF-36

Read in PDF (RUS)pdficon


  1. Злокачественные новообразования в России в 2012 г. (заболева- емость и смертность). Под ред. А.Д. Каприна, В.В. Старинского, Г.В. Пе- тровой. М.: ФГБУ «МНИОИ им. П.А. Герцена» МЗ РФ, 2014. [Sostoyaniye onkologicheskoy pomoshchi naseleniyu Rossii v 2012 g. Pod red. A.D. Kaprina, V.V. Starinskogo, G.V. Petrovoy (Status of oncological care for population of Russia in 2012. Ed. by A.D.Kaprin, V.V. Starinsky, and G.V. Petrova). M.: FGBU MNIO im. P.A. Gertsena Minzdravsotsrazvitiya Rossii 2014.]
  2. Morton L.M., Wang S.S., Devesa S.S. et al. Lymphoma incidence patterns by WHO subtype in the United States, 1992–2001. Blood 2006; 107(1): 265–76.
  3. Румянцев А.Г., Птушкин В.В., Семочкин С.В. Пути улучшения ре- зультатов лечения злокачественных опухолей у подростков и молодых взрослых. Онкогематология 2011; 1: 20–30. [Rumyantsev A.G., Ptushkin V.V., Semochkin S.V. Approaches to improvement of treatment outcomes in adolescents and young adults with malignancies. Onkogematologiya 2011; 1: 20–30. (In Russ.)].
  4. Evens A.M., Hutchings M., Diehl V. Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma: the past, present, and future. Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 2008; 5(9): 543–56.
  5. Sasse S., Klimm B., Gorgen H. et al. Comparing long-term toxicity and efficacy of combined modality treatment including extended- or involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann. Oncol. 2012; 23(11): 2953–9.
  6. Robison L.L., Green D.M., Hudson M. et al. Long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer 2005; 104(11): 2557–64.
  7. Shah A.B., Hudson M.M., Poquette C.A. et al. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with primary radiotherapy for supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin’s disease at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1999; 44(4): 867–77.
  8. Феоктистов Р.И., Румянцева Ю.В., Абугова Ю.Г. и др. Результаты лечения детей и подростков с лимфомой Ходжкина: данные многоцентро- вого исследования. Онкогематология 2010; 1: 31–6. [Feoktistov R.I., Rumyantseva Yu.V., Abugova Yu.G., et al. Treatment outcomes in children and adolescents with Hodgkin’s lymphoma: data of multicenter study. Onkogematologiya 2010; 1: 31–6. (In Russ.)].
  9. Schellong G., Riepenhausen M., Bruch C. et al. Late valvular and other cardiac diseases after different doses of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin disease in children and adolescents: report from the longitudinal GPOH followup project of the German-Austrian DAL-HD studies. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 2010; 55(6): 1145–52.
  10. Демина Е.А., Пылова И.В., Шмаков Р.Г., Перилова Е.Е. Поздние ослож- нения терапии больных лимфомой Ходжкина. Совр. онкол. 2006; 1: 36–43. [Demina Ye.A., Pylova I.V., Shmakov R.G., Perilova Ye.Ye. Late complications of therapy in patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Sovr. onkol. 2006; 1: 36–43. (In Russ.)]. 11. Ng A.K., LaCasce A., Travis L.B. Long-term complications of lymphoma and its treatment. J. Clin. Oncol. 2011; 29(14): 1885–92.
  11. Gil-Fernandez J., Ramos C., Tamayo T. et al. Quality of life and psychological well-being in Spanish long-term survivors of Hodgkin’s disease: results of a controlled pilot study. Ann. Hematol. 2003; 82(1): 14–8.
  12. Khimani N., Chen Y.H., Mauch P.M. et al. Influence of new late effects on quality of life over time in Hodgkin lymphoma Survivors: a longitudinal survey study. Ann. Oncol. 2013; 24(1): 226–30.
  13. Hjermstad M.J., Fossa S.D., Oldervoll L. et al. Fatigue in long-term Hodgkin’s disease survivors: a follow-up study. J. Clin. Oncol. 2005; 23(27): 6587–95.
  14. Ruffer J.U., Flechtner H., Tralls P. et al. Fatigue in long-term survivors of Hodgkin’s lymphoma; a report from the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG). Eur. J. Cancer 2003; 39(15): 2179–86.
  15. Новик А.А., Ионова Т.И. Руководство по исследованию качества жизни в медицине. Под ред. Ю.Л. Шевченко, 2-е изд. М.: Олма Медиагрупп, 2007. [Novik A.A., Ionova T.I. Rukovodstvo po issledovaniyu kachestva zhizni v meditsine. Pod red. Yu.L. Shevchenko, 2-e izd. (Manual on evaluation of quality of life in medicine. Ed by.: Yu.L. Shevchenko, 2nd ed.) M.: Olma Mediagrup, 2007]
  16. Давыдкин И.Л., Булгакова С.В., Шафиева И.А. Подходы к реаби- литации пациентов в Самарском областном межведомственном центре профилактики остеопороза. Аллергол. и иммунол. 2007; 8(1): 276. [Davydkin I.L., Bulgakova S.V., Shafiyeva I.A. Approaches to rehabilitation of patients in Samara regional interdisciplinary center for osteoporosis prevention. Allergol. i immunol. 2007; 8(1): 276. (In Russ.)].
  17. Semochkin S.V., Arshanskaya E.G., Bobkova M.M., Rumiantsev A.G. A long-term follow-up report on the modified pediatric protocol DAL-HD-90 for adolescents and young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 2012; 59(6): 1042.
  18. Семочкин С.В., Лория С.С., Румянцев А.Г., Сотников В.М. Лечение лимфомы Ходжкина у подростков и молодых взрослых. Онкогематология 2008; 1: 18–26. [Semochkin S.V., Loriya S.S., Rumyantsev A.G., Sotnikov V.M. Management of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in adolescents and young adults. Onkogematologiya 2008; 1: 18–26. (In Russ.)].
  19. Ware J.E., Kosinski M. Interpreting SF-36 summary health measures: a response. Qual. Life Res. 2001; 10(5): 405–13.
  20. Van Tulder M.W., Aaronson N.K., Bruning P.F. The quality of life of longterm survivors of Hodgkin’s disease. Ann. Oncol. 1994; 5(2): 153–8.
  21. Loge J.H., Abrahamsen A.F., Ekeberg O., Kaasa S. Reduced healthrelated quality of life among Hodgkin’s disease survivors: a comparative study with general population norms. Ann. Oncol. 1999; 10(1): 71–7.
  22. Mols F., Vingerhoets A.J., Coebergh J.W. et al. Better quality of life among 10–15 year survivors of Hodgkin’s lymphoma compared to 5–9 year survivors: a population-based study. Eur. J. Cancer 2006; 42(16): 2794–801.

Optimization of diagnosis and treatment of Burkitt’s lymphoma in children, adolescents, and young adults

T.T. Valiyev1, Ye.A. Baryakh2, P.A. Zeynalova3, A.M. Kovrigina2, S.K. Kravchenko2, T.N. Obukhova2, N.А. Falaleyeva3, A.I. Senderovich3, I.N. Serebryakova3, I.V. Kaminskaya1, A.S. Levashov1, and G.L. Mentkevich1

1 Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Research Institute, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

2 Hematology Research Center, RF Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russian Federation

3 Clinical Oncology Research Institute, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation


We present the combined experience of the leading centers in diagnosis and treatment of Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) in children, adolescents, and young adults, that is the first one in the national scientific literature. It includes immunolomorphologic and cytogenetic criteria of BL. The clinical features of BL in various age groups and treatment outcomes according to B-NHL-BFM 90/95 and CODOX-M/IVAC programs are described. Also, the treatment outcomes according to the original national LB-M-04 protocol are shown. The place of rituximab in BL treatment is discussed.

Keywords: Burkitt’s lymphoma, children, adolescents, young adults, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment.

Read in PDF(RUS)pdficon


  1. Kasili E.G. Paediatric malignancy in tropical Africa — a growing concern. East. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 685–6.
  2. Thomas D., Cortes J., O’Brien S. et al. Hyper-CVAD program in Burkitt’s type adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J. Clin. Oncol. 1999; 17(8): 2461–70.
  3. Ferry J.A. Burkitt’s Lymphoma: Clinicopathologic Features and Differential Diagnosis. Oncologist 2006; 11: 375–83.
  4. Swerdlow S.H., Campo E., Lee H.N. et al. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoetic and Lymphoid tissues, 4th edn. Lyon: IARC Press, 2008: 439.
  5. Agugua N.E., Okeahialam T. Malignant diseases of childhood seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. East. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 717–23.
  6. Oguonu T., Emodi E., Kaine W. Epidemiologie of Burkitt’s lymphoma in Enugu, Nigeria. Ann. Trop. Paediatr. 2002; 22: 369–74.
  7. Amusa Y.B., Adediran I.A., Akinpelu V.O. et al. Burkitt’s lymphoma of the head and neck region in a Nigeria tertiary hospital. East. Afr. J. Med. 2005; 24(3): 139–42.
  8. Kittivorapart J., Chinthammitr Y. Incidence and risk factors of bone marrow involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2011; 94(Suppl. 1): S239–45.
  9. Барях Е.А., Кравченко С.К., Обухова Т.Н. и др. Лимфома Беркитта: клиника, диагностика, лечение. Клин. онкогематол. 2009; 2(2): 137–46. [Baryakh Ye.A., Kravchenko S.K., Obukhova T.N., et al. Burkitt’s lymphoma: clinical presentation, diagnosis, management. Klin. onkogematol. 2009; 2(2): 137–47. (In Russ.)].
  10. Blum K.A., Lozansky G., Byrd J. Adult Burkitt’s leukemia and lymphoma. Blood 2004; 20: 32–7.
  11. Braziel R.M., Arber D.A., Slovac M.L. et al. The Burkitt-like lymphoma: a Southwest Oncologie Group study delineating phenotypic, genotypic and clinical features. Blood 2001; 97(12): 3713–20.
  12. Martinez-Maza O., Breen E.C. B-cell activation and lymphoma in patients with HIV. Curr. Opin. Oncol. 2002; 14: 528–32.
  13. Magrath I.T. Malignant Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Children. Pediatr. Oncol. 2002; 119: 661–705.
  14. Zeigler J. Burkitt’s lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 1981; 305: 735–45.
  15. Kelly G., Bell A., Rickinson A. Epstein-Barr virus-associated Burkitt lymphoma genesis selects for down-regulation of the nuclear antigen EBNA2. Nat. Med. 2002; 8(10): 1098–104.
  16. Гурцевич В.Э. Роль вируса Эпштейна—Барр в онкогематологиче- ских заболеваниях человека. Клин. онкогематол. 2010; 3(3): 222–35. [Gurtsevich V.E. Role of Epstein—Barr virus in human hematological malignancies. Klin. onkogematol. 2010; 3(3): 222–35. (In Russ.)].
  17. Magrath I. Epidemiology: clues to the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma. Br. J. Haematol. 2012; 156(6): 744–56.
  18. Croce C. Role of chromosome translocations in human neoplasia. Cell 1987; 49(2): 155–6.
  19. Zech L., Haglund U., Nilsson K., Klein G. Characteristic chromosomal abnormalities in biopsies and lymphoid-cell lines from patients with Butkitt and non-Burkitt lymphomas. Int. J. Cancer 1976; 17: 47–56.
  20. Обухова Т.Н., Барях Е.А., Капланская И.Б. и др. Выявление диагности- ческих для лимфомы Беркитта транслокаций методом флюоресцентной in situ гибридизации на гистологических срезах парафиновых блоков. Тер. арх. 2007; 79(7): 80–3. [Obukhova T.N., Baryakh Ye.A., Kaplanskaya I.B., et al. Detection of translocations typical for Burkitt’s lymphoma using fluorescent hydrydization in situ in histological slices from paraffin blocks. Ter. arkh. 2007; 79(7): 80–3. (In Russ.)]
  21. Green T.M., Nielsen O., de Stricker K. et al. High levels of nuclear MYC protein predict the presence of MYC rearrangement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2012; 36(4): 612–9.
  22. Ben-Neriah S., Woods R., Steidl C. et al. Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival. Blood 2009; 114: 2273–9.
  23. Tagawa H., Ikeda S., Sawada K. Role of microRNA in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma. Cancer Sci. 2013; 10; 121–6.
  24. Mead G.M., Sydes M.R., Walewski J. et al. An international evaluation of CODOX-M and CODOX-M alternating with IVAC in adult Burkitt’s lymphoma: results of United Kingdom Lymphoma Group LY06 study. Ann. Oncol. 2002; 13(8): 1264–74.
  25. Costa L.J., Xavier A.C., Wahlquist A.E. еt al. Trends in survival of patients with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia in the USA: an analysis of 3691 cases. Blood 2013; 121(24): 4861–6.
  26. Fayad L., Thomas D., Romaguera J. Update of the M.D.Anderson Cancer Center experience with hyper-CVAD and rituximab for the treatment of mantle cell and Burkitt-type lymphomas. Clin. Lymph. Myel. 2007; 8(2): 57–62.
  27. Rizzieri D.A., Johnson J.L., Byrd J.C. et al. Efficacy and toxicity of rituximab and brief duration, high intensity chemotherapy with filgrastim support for Burkitt or Burkitt-like leukemia/lymphoma: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Study 10002 (abstract). Blood 2010; 116: Abstract 858.
  28. Dunleavy K., Pittaluga S., Wayne A.S. et al. MYC+ aggressive B-cell lymphomas: A novel therapy of untreated Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and MYC+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with DA-EPOCH-R (abstract). Ann. Oncol. 2011; 22(4): Abstract 71.
  29. Griffin T.C., Weitzman S., Weinstein H. et al. A study of rituximab and ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide chemotherapy in children with recurrent/ refractory B-cell (CD20+) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Childrens Oncology Group. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 2009; 52: 177–81.
  30. Российские клинические рекомендации по диагностике и лечению лимфопролиферативных заболеваний. Под ред. И.В. Поддубной, В.Г. Савченко. М.: Медиа Медика, 2013: 102. [Rossiyskie klinicheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike i lecheniyu limfoproliferativnykh zabolevaniy. Pod red. I.V. Poddubnoy, V.G. Savchenko (Russian clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Ed. by: I.V. Poddubnaya, V.G. Savchenko) M.: Media Medika, 2013: 102.]
  31. Барях Е.А., Валиев Т.Т., Яцков К.В. и др. Интенсивная терапия лимфомы Беркитта: описание двух клинических случаев. Гематол. и транс- фузиол. 2007; 52(1): 41–3. [Baryakh Ye.A., Valiyev T.T., Yatskov K.V., et al. Intensive therapy for Burkitt’s lymphoma: presentation of two clinical cases. Gematol. i transfuziol. 2007; 1: 41–3. (In Russ.)].
  32. Барях Е.А., Звонков Е.Е., Кременецкая А.М. Лечение беркиттопо- добной лимфомы взрослых. Тер. арх. 2006; 7: 53. [Baryakh Ye.A., Zvonkov Ye.Ye., Kremenetskaya A.M. Management of adult Burkitt-like lymphoma. Ter. arkh. 2006; 7: 53. (In Russ.)].
  33. Rosenfeld A., Arrington D., Miller J. et al. A review of childhood and adolescent craniopharyngiomas with particular attention to hypothalamic obesity. Pediatr. Neurol. 2014; 50(1): 4–10. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Nov 1.
  34. Senerchia A.A., Ribeiro K.B., Rodriguez-Galindo C. Trends in incidence of primary cutaneous malignancies in children, adolescents, and young adults: A population-based study. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 2014; 61(2): 211–6. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24639. Epub 2013 Oct 30.
  35. Тур А.Ф., Тарасов О.Ф., Шабалов Н.П. и др. Детские болезни, 2-е изд. М.: Медицина, 1985. [Tur A.F., Tarasov O.F., Shabalov N.P., et al. Detskiye bolezni, 2-e izd. (Pediatric disorders. 2nd ed.) M.: Meditsina, 1985]
  36. Bleyer A., Viny A., Barr R. Cancer in 15- to 29-year-olds by primary site. Oncologist 2006; 11(6): 590–601.
  37. Bleyer A. Young adult oncology: the patients and their survival challenges. СА Cancer J. Clin. 2007; 57(4): 242–55.
  38. Wood W.A., Lee S.J. Malignant hematologic diseases in adolescents and young adults. Blood 2011; 117: 5803–15.
  39. Sandlund J.T. Should adolescents with NHL be treated as old children or young adults? Hematol. Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Progr. 2007; 2007(1): 297–303.
  40. Cairo M.S., Sposto R., Gerrard M. et al. Advanced stage, increased, lactate dehydrogenase, and primary site, but not adolescent age (³ 15 years)are associated with an increased risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents with mature B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma: results of FAB LMB 96 Study. J. Clin. Oncol. 2012; 30(4): 387–93.
  41. Coiffier B. State-of-the-art therapeutics: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J. Clin. Oncol. 2005; 23(26): 6387–93.
  42. Pfreundschuh M., Trumper L., Osterborg A. et al. CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a randomized controlled trial by the MabThera International Trial (MinT). Lancet Oncol. 2006; 7(5): 379–91.