Hematological Improvement is a Favorable Response to Azacitidine in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemias and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

I.I. Kostroma1, S.V. Gritsaev1, E.V. Karyagina2, A.S. Nizamutdinova3, I.S. Martynkevich1, K.M. Abdulkadyrov1

1 Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology under the Federal Medico-Biological Agency, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024

2 Municipal Hospital No. 15, 4 Avangardnaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 198205

3 Alexandrovskaya Municipal Hospital No. 17, 4 pr-t Solidarnosti, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 193312

For correspondence: Ivan Ivanovich Kostroma, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024; Tel.: +7(812)717-58-57; e-mail: obex@rambler.ru

For citation: Kostroma II, Gritsaev SV, Karyagina EV, et al. Hematological Improvement is a Favorable Response to Azacitidine in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemias and Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Clinical oncohematology. 2015;8(4):413–419 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2015-8-4-413-419


Aim. To evaluate types of response to azacitidine associated with improvement of overall survival (OS) rates of patients with acute myeloid leukemias (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

Methods. A retrospective analyses of medical records of 14 AML patients and 13 MDS patients at the age of 39 to 84 treated with azacitidine at a dose of 75 mg/m2 subcutaneously for 7 subsequent days every 28 days was performed. The therapy effectiveness was evaluated according to modified 2006 IWG criteria. The OS was calculated beginning with the date of initiation of the azacitidine therapy.

Results. From 2 to 25 azacitidine cycles was performed. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 6 patients (22.2 %) including 4 AML and 2 MDS patients. Bone marrow remission (mCR) was diagnosed in 1 MDS patient (3.7 %). Hematological improvement was obtained in 11 patients (40.7 %) including 5 AML and 6 MDS patients. The overall response was 66.7 % (18 to 27 patients). There was no correlation between the therapy effectiveness and patients’ age, disease type, duration of the previous period, baseline hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelets levels, and dependence on transfusions of erythrocyte suspension and thromboconcentrate. The therapy was considered ineffective in 9 patients (33.3 %). Stabilization with retained requirements of blood component transfusion was observed in 4 AML and 3 MDS patients. 2 patients presented gradual increase of the blast cell count in the bone marrow. The follow-up period was 2–29 months. The median OS of all patients was 11.5 months. The median OS of patients with CR, mCR and hematological improvement was significantly greater than that in the group of patients with stable disease and progression: 15.9 versus 7.4 months, respectively (= 0,010).

Conclusion. Reduction of transfusion requirement and/or stable improvement of peripheral blood levels due to azacitidine administration are associated with improved OS rates of AML and MDS patients.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, azacitidine, hematological improvement, overall survival.

Received: April 6, 2015

Accepted: October 22, 2015

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