Полимеразная цепная реакция в оценке прогноза и мониторинге вирус Эпштейна—Барр-ассоциированной лимфомы Ходжкина

Н.А. Катин1, И.В. Жильцов1, В.М. Семенов1, Д.К. Новик2

1 УО «Витебский государственный медицинский университет», пр-т Фрунзе, д. 27, Витебск, Республика Беларусь, 210023

2 ГУ «Республиканский научно-практический центр радиационной медицины и экологии человека», ул. Ильича, д. 290, Гомель, Республика Беларусь, 246040

Для переписки: Иван Викторович Жильцов, д-р мед. наук, профессор, пр-т Фрунзе, д. 27, Витебск, Республика Беларусь, 210023; тел.: +375(29)7104368-93-29; e-mail: zhyltsou@tut.by

Для цитирования: Катин Н.А., Жильцов И.В., Семенов В.М., Новик Д.К. Полимеразная цепная реакция в оценке прогноза и мониторинге вирус Эпштейна—Барр-ассоциированной лимфомы Ходжкина. Клиническая онкогематология. 2018;11(2):182–6.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-2-182-186


РЕФЕРАТ

В обзоре представлен анализ 34 статей, посвященных изучению полимеразной цепной реакции (ПЦР) в качестве метода определения ДНК вируса Эпштейна—Барр (ВЭБ) в биологическом материале у пациентов с ВЭБ-ассоциированными онкологическими заболеваниями, включая лимфому Ходжкина (ЛХ). Приводится сравнительный анализ различных методик определения ДНК ВЭБ в биологическом материале. ВЭБ связан с ЛХ в 20–100 % случаев в зависимости от географического региона и ВИЧ-статуса пациента. Для ВЭБ-ассоциированных ЛХ характерен тип латенции II. Установлено, что ВЭБ находится во всех атипичных клетках и может определяться в крови у пациентов с ВЭБ-ассоциированной ЛХ методом ПЦР. Представлены результаты различных исследований, в которых выявление ВЭБ методом ПЦР сравнивается с методами in situ гибридизации и иммуногистохимии при различных ВЭБ-ассоциированных онкологических заболеваниях, включая ЛХ. Полученные данные указывают на возможность использовать ПЦР для количественного определения ДНК ВЭБ в плазме у больных ЛХ при мониторинге эффективности лечения, оценке прогноза течения и развития рецидивов заболевания. Количественное определение ДНК ВЭБ с помощью метода ПЦР в режиме реального времени в плазме у пациентов с ВЭБ-ассоциированной ЛХ является перспективным методом. Для дальнейшего внедрения в практику необходимы стандартизация методики, проведение более крупных исследований, а также сопоставление с позитронно-эмиссионной томографией.

Ключевые слова: вирус Эпштейна—Барр, лимфома Ходжкина, полимеразная цепная реакция.

Получено: 20 декабря 2017 г.

Принято в печать: 28 февраля 2018 г.

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Вирус Эпштейна—Барр и классическая лимфома Ходжкина

В.Э. Гурцевич

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Владимир Эдуардович Гурцевич, д-р мед. наук, профессор, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; тел.: +7(499)324-25-64; e-mail: gurvlad532@yahoo.com

Для цитирования: Гурцевич В.Э. Вирус Эпштейна—Барр и классическая лимфома Ходжкина. Клиническая онкогематология. 2016;9(2):101–14.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-2-101-114


РЕФЕРАТ

Среди онкогенных вирусов человека вирус Эпштейна—Барр (ВЭБ) обращает на себя внимание уникальными свойствами. Этот широко распространенный среди населения планеты вирус одновременно является лидером по числу ассоциированных с ним различных доброкачественных и злокачественных новообразований лимфоидного и эпителиального происхождения. Онкогенный потенциал ВЭБ связан с его способностью инфицировать и трансформировать лимфоциты человека. В тех случаях, когда взаимодействие между размножением ВЭБ, его латентным состоянием и иммунным контролем со стороны организма нарушается, создаются условия для длительной пролиферации инфицированных ВЭБ лимфоцитов и их злокачественной трансформации. По мнению ряда исследователей, молекулярные механизмы связанного с ВЭБ канцерогенеза обусловлены способностью вирусного генома стимулировать экспрессию серии продуктов, имитирующих ряд факторов роста, транскрипции и оказывающих антиапоптотическое действие. Эти кодируемые ВЭБ продукты нарушают сигнальные пути, которые регулируют различные клеточные функции гомеостаза, наделяя клетку способностью к неограниченной пролиферации. Тем не менее точный механизм, с помощью которого ВЭБ инициирует онкогенез, остается не до конца выясненным. В обзоре приводится обобщающая информация о структуре и онкогенном потенциале ВЭБ, морфологических и клинических вариантах лимфомы Ходжкина (ЛХ), а также роли ВЭБ в патогенезе связанных с этим вирусом вариантов ЛХ. Кроме того, в обзоре освещены последние данные об использовании уровня вирусной ДНК ВЭБ в плазме больных ЛХ в качестве биомаркера, отражающего эффективность проведенного лечения и прогноз болезни.


Ключевые слова: вирус Эпштейна—Барр, ВЭБ, латентный мембранный белок 1, LMP1, лимфома Ходжкина, копии ДНК ВЭБ.

Получено: 5 февраля 2016 г.

Принято в печать: 8 февраля 2016 г.

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Вторичный гемофагоцитарный синдром в клинической практике гематолога: обзор литературы и собственные данные

Потапенко В.Г.1,2,  Потихонова Н.А.4, Байков В.В. 2, Белогурова М.Б. 1, Лисуков И.А.3, Климович А.В. 1,Лапин  С.В. 2, Иванова М.О. 2,  Кравцова В.М.2,  Подольцева Э.И.1, Медведева Н.В. 1,  Афанасьев Б.В.2

1 СПб ГБУЗ «Городская клиническая больница № 31», пр-т Динамо, д. 3, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197110

2 НИИ детской онкологии, гематологии и трансплантологии им. Р.М. Горбачевой, Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет им. акад. И.П. Павлова, ул. Рентгена, д. 12, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197022

3 Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет им. И.И. Мечникова, ул. Кирочная, д. 41, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191015

4 ФГБУ «Российский научно-исследовательский институт гематологии и трансфузиологии Федерального медико-биологического агентства», ул. 2-я Советская, д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024

Для переписки: Всеволод Геннадьевич Потапенко, СПб ГБУЗ «Городская клиническая больница № 31», пр. Динамо, д. 3, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197110; тел.: +7(812)230-19-33; e-mail: potapenko.vsevolod@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Потапенко В.Г., Потихонова Н.А., Байков В.В. и др. Вторичный гемофагоцитарный синдром у взрослых в клинической практике гематолога: обзор литературы и собственные данные. Клиническая онкогематология. 2015;8(2):169–84.


РЕФЕРАТ

Актуальность и цели. Гемофагоцитарный синдром представляет собой опасный гипервоспалительный синдром, причиной которого наиболее часто служит инфекция. Он является следствием избыточной активации клеток системы фагоцитирующих мононуклеаров, что проявляется цитопенией, системной воспалительной реакцией, повреждением печени, селезенки. В связи с редкостью заболевания, сложностью диагностики этот синдром является малоизученным и часто остается нераспознанным. Цель работы — описательный анализ собственных наблюдений вторичного гемофагоцитарного синдрома (ГФС) и представление литературного обзора.

Методы. Анализу подвергнуты клинические и лабораторные данные 15 пациентов в возрасте 16–64 года (медиана 48 лет) со вторичным ГФС, которые наблюдались с 2009 по 2013 г. Вторичные ГФС были диагностированы у больных злокачественными лимфопролиферативными и инфекционными заболеваниями. Признаки ГФС выявлены при злокачественных лимфопролиферативных заболеваниях (n = 5), хронической активной инфекции, вызванной вирусом Эпштейна—Барр (ВЭБ) (n = 3), аллогенной трансплантации стволовых клеток крови (n = 3), остром лейкозе (n = 1), множественной миеломе (n = 1), пневмонии (n = 1), гломерулонефрите (n = 1). Терапия ГФС проводилась 8 пациентам: этопозид (n = 1), глюкокортикоиды (n = 1), внутривенный иммуноглобулин (n = 2), комбинация ритуксимаба и глюкокортикоидов (n = 2), этопозида и циклоспорина А (n = 1), а также комбинированная химиотерапия по программе HLH-2004 (n = 1). Медиана наблюдения за больными составила 42 мес.

Результаты. У включенных в ретроспективный анализ 15 взрослых пациентов самыми частыми фоновыми заболеваниями при вторичном ГФС были злокачественные лимфопролиферативные заболевания и хроническая ВЭБ-инфекция. Ранняя диагностика сложна, т. к. принятые в настоящее время критерии болезни характерны для ГФС поздней стадии. Все это диктует необходимость разработки более чувствительных и универсальных диагностических критериев.

Заключение. В онкогематологической клинике вторичный ГФС является тяжелым осложнением, требующим проведения дифференциальной диагностики с другими критическими состояниями и интенсивной терапии. При ГФС, связанным с онкогематологическими заболеваниями, пациенты нуждаются в тщательном наблюдении в процессе и после окончании противоопухолевого лечения.


Ключевые слова: вторичный гемофагоцитарный синдром, лимфома, вирус Эпштейна—Барр, этопозид, трансплантация стволовых клеток крови.

Получено: 9 декабря 2014 г.

Принято в печать: 7 февраля 2015 г.

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