Блокада PD-1-пути ниволумабом — новая возможность иммунотерапии классической лимфомы Ходжкина

Е.А. Демина

ФГБУ «НМИЦ онкологии им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Елена Андреевна Демина, д-р мед. наук, профессор, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; e-mail: drdemina@yandex.ru

Для цитирования: Демина Е.А. Блокада PD-1-пути ниволумабом — новая возможность иммунотерапии классической лимфомы Ходжкина. Клиническая онкогематология. 2018;11(3):213–19.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-3-213-219


РЕФЕРАТ

За последние два десятилетия показано, что индивидуализация программного лечения с одновременной интенсификацией химиотерапии позволяет излечить большинство больных классической лимфомой Ходжкина (кЛХ). Однако у 10–30 % больных развиваются рецидивы или отмечается резистентное течение заболевания. Дальнейшая интенсификация терапии сопровождается токсичностью, снижающей общую выживаемость и качество жизни больных. Современный стандарт терапии второй линии, включающий высокодозную химиотерапию (ВДХТ) с трансплантацией аутологичных гемопоэтических стволовых клеток (аутоТГСК), позволяет достичь длительной 5-летней выживаемости без прогрессирования лишь у 50–60 % больных с рецидивами и не более 40–45 % — при рефрактерном течении. Приблизительно у 50 % больных после ВДХТ и аутоТГСК наблюдается возврат заболевания. Медиана общей выживаемости у пациентов с рецидивами не превышает 2 лет. АллоТГСК несколько улучшает результаты, но ее выполнение возможно далеко не у всех больных. Необходимость повышения эффективности терапии рецидивов и резистентных форм кЛХ и снижения токсичности высокоэффективных программ послужила основанием для поиска новых возможностей лечения. Идея использовать анти-CD30-моноклональные антитела против специфичного маркера опухолевых клеток Березовского—Рид—Штернберга в качестве средства для доставки высокоэффективного противоопухолевого соединения монометилауристатина Е непосредственно в опухолевую клетку привела к созданию нового CD30-таргетного конъюгата брентуксимаба ведотина. Препарат продемонстрировал высокую эффективность, но не решил проблему полностью. Создание анти-PD1-антител ниволумаба открыло новые возможности в лечении кЛХ. В настоящем обзоре представлены сведения о фармакологии препарата, механизме противоопухолевого действия, а также результаты крупных международных рандомизированных клинических исследований.

Ключевые слова: ниволумаб, лимфома Ходжкина, рецидив, резистентность, лечение.

Получено: 5 февраля 2018 г.

Принято в печать: 30 апреля 2018 г.

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Брентуксимаб ведотин в терапии рецидивов и рефрактерной лимфомы Ходжкина: опыт применения в Краснодарском крае

О.Д. Сердюк, Д.А. Яскульский

ГБУЗ «Клинический онкологический диспансер № 1» Минздрава Краснодарского края, ул. Димитрова, д. 146, Краснодар, Российская Федерация, 350040

Для переписки: Ольга Дмитриевна Сердюк, ул. Димитрова, д. 146, Краснодар, Российская Федерация, 350040; тел.: +7(918)441-08-33; e-mail: 7-18@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Сердюк О.Д., Яскульский Д.А. Брентуксимаб ведотин в терапии рецидивов и рефрактерной лимфомы Ходжкина: опыт применения в Краснодарском крае. Клиническая онкогематология. 2018;11(1):50–3.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-1-50-53


РЕФЕРАТ

Проблема терапии рецидивов и рефрактерных форм лимфомы Ходжкина (ЛХ) остается актуальной. Заболеваемость ЛХ в Краснодарском крае увеличивается. Несмотря на успехи лечения ЛХ, в целом число больных с рецидивами остается достаточно высоким. Стандартная терапия второй линии позволяет достичь контроля над заболеванием только у половины пациентов с рецидивами ЛХ. Однако при рецидивах после аутологичной трансплантации гемопоэтических стволовых клеток (аутоТГСК) до недавнего времени не было дополнительных лечебных опций. Ограничивались сдерживающими курсами полихимиотерапии. Применение конъюгата моноклонального антитела к CD30 и цитотоксического препарата позволяет контролировать болезнь у пациентов с рецидивами после высокодозной химиотерапии с последующей аутоТГСК. В настоящей статье представлены сведения о фармакологии брентуксимаба ведотина, механизме его противоопухолевого действия, а также описано собственное клиническое наблюдение по применению препарата после аутоТГСК у пациентки с ЛХ.

Ключевые слова: лимфома Ходжкина, брентуксимаб ведотин, таргетная терапия, рецидив.

Получено: 25 ноября 2017 г.

Принято в печать: 8 января 2018 г.

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ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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Брентуксимаб ведотин: новые возможности лечения рецидивов и рефрактерных форм лимфомы Ходжкина

Е.А. Демина

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Елена Андреевна Демина, д-р мед. наук, профессор, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; тел.: +7 (499)324-90-89; e-mail: drdemina@yandex.ru

Для цитирования: Демина Е.А. Брентуксимаб ведотин: новые возможности лечения рецидивов и рефрактерных форм лимфомы Ходжкина. Клиническая онкогематология. 2016;9(4):390–405.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-4-398-405


РЕФЕРАТ

Концепция полной излечимости при лимфоме Ходжкина сформулирована еще в 70-е годы прошлого столетия. Тем не менее у 10–30 % больных развиваются рецидивы, кроме того, не исключается резистентное течение опухоли. Высокодозная химиотерапия с аутологичной трансплантацией гемопоэтических стволовых клеток — современный стандарт лечения при рецидивах и рефрактерных формах лимфомы Ходжкина. Однако длительные ремиссии достигаются только у половины этой категории больных. Токсичность эффективных программ терапии первой линии и недостаточная эффективность программ, применяемых при рецидивах и резистентных формах болезни, служат основанием для поиска новых методов лечения этой злокачественной опухоли. Одним из новых подходов к терапии лимфомы Ходжкина стало создание иммуноконъюгата брентуксимаба ведотина. В настоящем обзоре представлены сведения о фармакологии препарата, механизме противоопухолевого действия, а также результаты крупных международных рандомизированных клинических исследований.


Ключевые слова: брентуксимаб ведотин, лимфома Ходжкина, рецидив, лечение.

Получено: 14 июня 2016 г.

Принято в печать: 17 июня 2016 г.

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Острые миелоидные лейкозы: собственный опыт применения цитарабина в малых дозах и кладрибина при рецидивах и резистентном течении

С.В. Грицаев, И.И. Кострома, А.А. Кузяева, И.М. Запреева, Е.В. Литвинская, Л.В. Стельмашенко, С.А. Тиранова, И.С. Мартынкевич, Н.А. Потихонова, К.М. Абдулкадыров

ФГБУ «Российский научно-исследовательский институт гематологии и трансфузиологии Федерального медико-биологического агентства», ул. 2-я Советская, д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024

Для переписки: Сергей Васильевич Грицаев, ул. 2-я Советская, д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024; тел.: +7(812)717-54-68; e-mail: gritsaevsv@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Грицаев С.В., Кострома И.И., Кузяева А.А. и др. Острые миелоидные лейкозы: собственный опыт применения цитарабина в малых дозах и кладрибина при рецидивах и резистентном течении. Клиническая онкогематология. 2016;9(1):48–53.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-1-48-53


РЕФЕРАТ

Цель. Оценка эффективности схемы, включающей малые дозы цитарабина (Ара-Ц) в комбинации с кладрибином у больных с рецидивами или резистентным течением острых миелоидных лейкозов (ОМЛ). Выделение клинико-лабораторных показателей, связанных с вероятностью достижения лечебного эффекта.

Методы. Проанализированы результаты лечения 10 больных в возрасте 26–58 лет (медиана 48 лет). У 7 больных диагностирован ОМЛ de novo, у 2 — лейкозная трансформация предшествующего миелоидного заболевания и у 1 — рефрактерная анемия с избытком бластов (РАИБ-2). Первично-резистентный вариант течения лейкоза констатирован у 4 больных, рецидив ОМЛ имел место у 3. При РАИБ-2 ответа на индукционный курс «7+3» не получено. Больные ОМЛ из предшествующего миелоидного заболевания до включения в исследование получали многочисленные курсы химиотерапии без эффекта. Исследуемый курс предполагал введение Ара-Ц по 10–15 мг/м2 подкожно 2 раза в сутки в 1–14-й день и кладрибина по 5 мг/м2 внутривенно 1 раз в сутки в 1–5-й день. Повторный курс выполнялся при снижении содержания бластных клеток в пунктате костного мозга не менее чем на 50 % по сравнению с исходным уровнем. Обследование и сопроводительная терапия проводились согласно протоколам, утвержденным в клинике.

Результаты. Проведено 1–2 курса согласно условиям протокола. Ответ достигнут у 5 больных: полная ремиссия (ПР) — у 2 и частичная (ЧР) — у 3. Наиболее частым осложнением была гематологическая токсичность. Трансфузии компонентов крови получали все больные. Летальных исходов в течение 8 нед. не наблюдалось. Длительность ответа варьировала от 2 до 3 мес. За это время 2 больным с ПР выполнена аллогенная трансплантация гемопоэтических стволовых клеток, однако у одного из них начало режима кондиционирования совпало с повышением числа бластных клеток в костном мозге. Поиск неродственных доноров гемопоэтических стволовых клеток начат 2 больным с ЧР. Отличительными признаками больных с ПР/ЧР были первичный ОМЛ, отсутствие мутаций генов FLT3 и c-KIT, длительность курса не менее 10 дней.

Заключение. Курс, включающий малые дозы Ара-Ц в комбинации с кладрибином, может рассматриваться как вариант лечения отдельных больных с рецидивами и резистентным течением ОМЛ de novo.


Ключевые слова: острые миелоидные лейкозы, рецидив, резистентное течение, малые дозы цитарабина, кладрибин.

Получено: 4 июня 2015 г.

Принято в печать: 8 октября 2015 г.

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Лечение рецидивов и рефрактерных форм лимфомы Ходжкина у детей

Н.С. Куличкина, Е.С. Беляева, Г.Л. Менткевич, В.К. Бояршинов, А.С. Левашов, И.В. Глеков, А.В. Попа

НИИ детской онкологии и гематологии ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Александр Валентинович Попа, д-р мед. наук, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; тел.: +7(499)324-55-03; e-mail: apopa@list.ru

Для цитирования: Куличкина Н.С., Беляева Е.С., Менткевич Г.Л. и др. Лечение рецидивов и рефрактерных форм лимфомы Ходжкина у детей. Клиническая онкогематология. 2016;9(1):13–21.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-1-13-21


РЕФЕРАТ

Актуальность и цели. Большинство детей, больных лимфомой Ходжкина (ЛХ), удается излечить независимо от стадии болезни благодаря современной программной риск-адаптированной терапии. Однако у 3–5 % детей развиваются рецидивы заболевания или отмечается рефрактерность к проводимой терапии. Цель — сравнительный анализ эффективности противоопухолевой терапии ViGePP vs ICE у больных с рецидивами и рефрактерными формами ЛХ; оценка необходимости выполнения аутоТГСК и места комбинированного химиолучевого лечения у этой категории пациентов.

Методы. С июня 2003 г. по декабрь 2014 г. 35 больным с рецидивами (n = 18) и рефрактерными формами (n = 17) ЛХ проводилась терапия, основанная на двух режимах: ICE (n = 14; 40 %) и ViGePP (n = 14; 40 %). У 7 (20 %) больных осуществлена смена одного режима на другой в связи с неудовлетворительным противоопухолевым ответом на первые два курса лечения.

Результаты. Непосредственная эффективность лечения была существенно выше у больных, получавших химиотерапию по схеме ViGePP в сравнении с ICE, независимо от статуса болезни: рецидив или первичная рефрактерность. Полный ответ чаще регистрировался у тех больных с рецидивами ЛХ, у которых на начальных этапах программное лечение включало лучевую терапию. Более высокие показатели выживаемости оказались у девочек, чем у мальчиков, а также у детей с полным общим ответом на противорецидивное лечение. При рецидивах отдаленные результаты лечения (безрецидивная и общая выживаемость) были лучше у детей, получивших 4 курса ViGePP, в сравнении с получившими 2 курса ICE. Высокодозная химиотерапия с последующей аутоТГСК не позволяет преодолеть развившуюся к химиотерапии рефрактерность.

Заключение. Дети с рецидивами и рефрактерными формами ЛХ нуждаются в интенсивной противорецидивной химиотерапии с целью достичь полного ответа с последующей высокодозной химиотерапией и аутоТГСК.


Ключевые слова: лимфома Ходжкина, дети, рецидив, рефрактерность, аутоТГСК.

Получено: 9 ноября 2015 г.

Принято в печать: 25 декабря 2015

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Множественная миелома (лечение рецидивов и рефрактерных форм): обзор литературы и собственные данные. Часть III

С.С. Бессмельцев

ФГБУ «Российский научно-исследовательский институт гематологии и трансфузиологии Федерального медико-биологического агентства», Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация


РЕФЕРАТ

Использование новых подходов в лечении рецидивов/рефрактерных форм множественной миеломы (ММ) привело к существенному увеличению общей выживаемости больных, достижению качественного ответа и более длительной ремиссии по сравнению с пациентами, получавшими стандартную химиотерапию. Эти изменения связаны главным образом с применением новых препаратов: бортезомиба, талидомида, леналидомида, каждый из которых обладает выраженной противомиеломной активностью. Бортезомиб, талидомид и леналидомид используются в комбинации как с химиотерапевтическими препаратами, так и друг с другом, что существенно повышает эффективность лечения больных ММ. Однако, если больные не отвечают на бортезомиб и иммуномодуляторы, прогноз ухудшается. В настоящее время число препаратов, которые используются при ММ, достаточно большое, причем спектр их все более расширяется. Тем не менее результаты лечения больных с рецидивами/рефрактерными формами ММ не вполне удовлетворительные, что свидетельствует о трудностях разработки эффективных лекарственных средств. Появилось большое количество препаратов второго и третьего поколений, которые становятся все более доступными для клинического применения. Проводятся клинические исследования I, II и III фаз по оценке эффективности карфилзомиба, помалидомида, вориностата, панобиностата, ромидепсина, перифосина, танеспимицина, бендамустина и элотузумаба при рецидивах/рефрактерных формах ММ. В обзоре представлены современные подходы к ведению пациентов с рецидивами и рефрактерным течением ММ, основанные на результатах клинических исследований и собственных данных, целью которых было оптимизировать результаты лечения. Представлена эффективность различных классов новых лекарственных средств, обсуждены все «за» и «против», полученные в доклинических и клинических исследованиях. Подробно освещены побочные эффекты новых препаратов.


Ключевые слова: множественная миелома, рецидив, рефрактерное течение, бортезомиб, талидомид, леналидомид, карфилзомиб, помалидомид, лечение, полная ремиссия, общая выживаемость, нейропатия.

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