Помалидомид в лечении рецидивов и рефрактерной множественной миеломы у пациентов с почечной недостаточностью

И.Г. Рехтина, М.В. Нарейко, Л.П. Менделеева

ФГБУ «НМИЦ гематологии» Минздрава РФ, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167

Для переписки: Ирина Германовна Рехтина, д-р мед. наук, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167; тел.: +7(495)612-49-66; e-mail: rekhtina.i@blood.ru

Для цитирования: Рехтина И.Г., Нарейко М.В., Менделеева Л.П. Помалидомид в лечении рецидивов и рефрактерной множественной миеломы у пациентов с почечной недостаточностью. Клиническая онкогематология. 2018;11(4):283–7.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-4-283-287


РЕФЕРАТ

В обзоре представлены данные по эффективности и безопасности применения иммуномодулирующего препарата III поколения помалидомида в лечении рецидивов и рефрактерной множественной миеломы у пациентов с почечной недостаточностью. Результаты многоцентровых рандомизированных исследований доказали сходную эффективность и сопоставимый профиль безопасности у пациентов с нормальной функцией почек и умеренной и/или тяжелой степенью почечной недостаточности. Стартовая доза препарата — стандартная. Снижение дозы помалидомида бывает необходимо при возникновении гематологической токсичности. Представлены практические рекомендации по применению помалидомида и коррекции нежелательных явлений на основании консенсуса международных экспертов. Современные подходы к лечению множественной миеломы с почечной недостаточностью, в т. ч. применение помалидомида, продемонстрированы на конкретном клиническом примере.

Ключевые слова: множественная миелома, помалидомид, почечная недостаточность.

Получено: 28 марта 2018 г.

Принято в печать: 16 июля 2018 г.

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ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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Опыт применения помалидомида в комбинации с низкими дозами дексаметазона при множественной миеломе с «двойной рефрактерностью»

А.В. Петров2, Д.В. Моторин2, О.С. Покровская1, Е.С. Урнова1, М.В. Нарейко1, Д.В. Бабенецкая2, Ю.А. Алексеева2, Л.Л. Гиршова2, Л.П. Менделеева1, А.Ю. Зарицкий2

1 ФГБУ «Гематологический научный центр» Минздрава России, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4а, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167

2 ФГБУ «Северо-Западный федеральный медицинский исследовательский центр им. В.А. Алмазова» Минздрава России, ул. Аккуратова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197341

Для переписки: Алексей Владиленович Петров, ул. Аккуратова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197341; тел.: +7(921)317-28-02; e-mail: avlpetrov@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Петров А.В., Моторин Д.В., Покровская О.С. и др. Опыт применения помалидомида в комбинации с низкими дозами дексаметазона при множественной миеломе с «двойной рефрактерностью». Клиническая онкогематология. 2017;10(3):372–80.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2017-10-3-372-380


РЕФЕРАТ

Актуальность. Проблема поиска радикальной терапии множественной миеломы (ММ) до настоящего времени остается нерешенной. Заболевание характеризуется прогрессирующим течением и необходимостью проведения повторных курсов терапии с использованием препаратов, не обладающих перекрестной резистентностью. Прогноз заболевания с «двойной рефрактерностью» к ключевым противоопухолевым препаратам — ингибиторам протеасом первого поколения и иммуномодулирующим средствам — остается пессимистичным. Медиана выживаемости без прогрессирования (ВБП) и общей выживаемости (ОВ) в этой когорте больных составляет 5 и 9 мес. соответственно.

Цель. Оценить эффективность и переносимость помалидомида в комбинации с низкими дозами дексаметазона при рецидивах и рефрактерных формах множественной миеломы (РРММ), осложненной «двойной рефрактерностью».

Материалы и методы. С сентября 2015 г. по июль 2016 г. на базе ФГБУ «Гематологический научный центр» МЗ РФ и ФГБУ «Северо-Западный федеральный медицинский исследовательский центр им. В.А. Алмазова» МЗ РФ в исследование по протоколу включено 10 больных РРММ. Медиана возраста составила 62,5 года (диапазон 48–76 лет), а предшествующих линий терапии — 4 (диапазон 3–5). У всех больных имело место прогрессирование заболевания после применения бортезомиба, леналидомида, режимов с включением алкилирующих препаратов. Кроме того, 6 (60 %) из 10 больным проведена высокодозная химиотерапия мелфаланом с последующей аутоТГСК. Медиана курсов терапии — 6 (диапазон 4–15).

Результаты. Общий ответ составил 60 %, минимальный ответ/стабилизация заболевания — 40 % (критерии IMWG). Медиана ВБП составила 7,8 мес.; ОВ за 18 мес. — 70 % (медиана не достигнута). Гематологическая токсичность III–IV степени, связанная с терапией, наблюдалась у 2 больных (5 эпизодов). Негематологические нежелательные явления III–IV степени включали острый коронарный синдром, тромбоз глубоких вен нижних конечностей, нейропатическую боль, а также острое бредовое расстройство в 1 наблюдении, потребовавшее прекращения терапии. Наличие исходной цитопении и почечной недостаточности до начала терапии помалидомидом не потребовало редукции доз препарата и/или прекращения лечения.

Заключение. Исследуемый режим, включающий помалидомид и малые дозы дексаметазона, продемонстрировал высокий уровень общего ответа при РРММ, а также приемлемый профиль токсичности.

Ключевые слова: множественная миелома, «двойная рефрактерность», иммуномодулирующие препараты, помалидомид.

Получено: 24 января 2017 г.

Принято в печать: 6 мая 2017 г.

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Помалидомид в лечении рецидивов и рефрактерных форм множественной миеломы

С.В. Семочкин

ГБОУ ВПО «Российский национальный медицинский исследовательский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России, ул. Островитянова, д. 1, Москва, Российская Федерация, 117997

Для переписки: Сергей Вячеславович Семочкин, д-р мед. наук, профессор, ул. Островитянова, д. 1, Москва, Российская Федерация, 117997; тел.: +7(495)653-14-78; e-mail: s.semochkin@gmail.com

Для цитирования: Семочкин С.В. Помалидомид в лечении рецидивов и рефрактерных форм множественной миеломы. Клиническая онкогематология. 2015;8(4):379–389.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2015-8-4-379-389

РЕФЕРАТ

Помалидомид — иммуномодулирующий препарат третьего поколения, рекомендованный для лечения пациентов с множественной миеломой, рефрактерной к леналидомиду и бортезомибу. Профиль побочных явлений оптимизирован для применения у пациентов с интенсивным и длительным противоопухолевым лечением. Помалидомид одобрен в 2013 г. Управлением по контролю за качеством пищевых продуктов и лекарственных средств США (FDA) и Европейским агентством по лекарственным средствам (EMA) для лечения пациентов с рецидивами и рефрактерной множественной миеломой, которые получили не менее двух линий лечения, включая леналидомид и бортезомиб, с прогрессированием непосредственно при последней терапии либо в пределах 60 дней после ее окончания. Регистрация помалидомида с аналогичными показаниями ожидается в России в 2015 г. Помалидомид обладает сходным механизмом действия с другими иммуномодуляторами. Препарат оказывает как прямое цитостатическое воздействие, так и вызывает опосредованный эффект через воздействие на микроокружение костного мозга и T/NK-клеточный иммунитет. Рекомендуемая стартовая доза помалидомида составляет 4 мг/сут (в дни 1–21/28) в комбинации с низкими дозами дексаметазона (40 мг в неделю для молодых пациентов и 20 мг для пациентов старше 75 лет). Лечение рекомендуется проводить вплоть до прогрессирования болезни или появления неприемлемой токсичности. В обзоре представлены рекомендации по коррекции дозы препарата в зависимости от переносимости и профилактике тромботических осложнений. В статье представлено собственное клиническое наблюдение, которое демонстрирует успешное применение помалидомида у больного из группы высокого цитогенетического риска с двойной рефрактерностью — к бортезомибу и леналидомиду, интенсивным предшествующим противоопухолевым лечением. Продолжительность жизни после начала терапии помалидомидом составила около 16 мес., что соответствует литературным данным.


Ключевые слова: помалидомид, иммуномодулирующие агенты, множественная миелома.

Получено: 8 апреля 2015 г.

Принято в печать: 20 октября 2015 г.

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Множественная миелома (лечение рецидивов и рефрактерных форм): обзор литературы и собственные данные. Часть III

С.С. Бессмельцев

ФГБУ «Российский научно-исследовательский институт гематологии и трансфузиологии Федерального медико-биологического агентства», Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация


РЕФЕРАТ

Использование новых подходов в лечении рецидивов/рефрактерных форм множественной миеломы (ММ) привело к существенному увеличению общей выживаемости больных, достижению качественного ответа и более длительной ремиссии по сравнению с пациентами, получавшими стандартную химиотерапию. Эти изменения связаны главным образом с применением новых препаратов: бортезомиба, талидомида, леналидомида, каждый из которых обладает выраженной противомиеломной активностью. Бортезомиб, талидомид и леналидомид используются в комбинации как с химиотерапевтическими препаратами, так и друг с другом, что существенно повышает эффективность лечения больных ММ. Однако, если больные не отвечают на бортезомиб и иммуномодуляторы, прогноз ухудшается. В настоящее время число препаратов, которые используются при ММ, достаточно большое, причем спектр их все более расширяется. Тем не менее результаты лечения больных с рецидивами/рефрактерными формами ММ не вполне удовлетворительные, что свидетельствует о трудностях разработки эффективных лекарственных средств. Появилось большое количество препаратов второго и третьего поколений, которые становятся все более доступными для клинического применения. Проводятся клинические исследования I, II и III фаз по оценке эффективности карфилзомиба, помалидомида, вориностата, панобиностата, ромидепсина, перифосина, танеспимицина, бендамустина и элотузумаба при рецидивах/рефрактерных формах ММ. В обзоре представлены современные подходы к ведению пациентов с рецидивами и рефрактерным течением ММ, основанные на результатах клинических исследований и собственных данных, целью которых было оптимизировать результаты лечения. Представлена эффективность различных классов новых лекарственных средств, обсуждены все «за» и «против», полученные в доклинических и клинических исследованиях. Подробно освещены побочные эффекты новых препаратов.


Ключевые слова: множественная миелома, рецидив, рефрактерное течение, бортезомиб, талидомид, леналидомид, карфилзомиб, помалидомид, лечение, полная ремиссия, общая выживаемость, нейропатия.

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