Биология ниши гемопоэтических стволовых клеток

Н.Ю. Семенова, С.С. Бессмельцев, В.И. Ругаль

ФГБУ «Российский научно-исследовательский институт гематологии и трансфузиологии» ФМБА РФ, 2-я Советская ул., д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024

Для переписки: С.С. Бессмельцев, д-р мед. наук, профессор, 2-я Советская ул., д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024; тел.: +7(812)717-67-80; e-mail: bsshem@hotmail.com

Для цитирования: Семенова Н.Ю., Бессмельцев С.С., Ругаль В.И. Биология ниши гемопоэтических стволовых клеток. Клин. онкогематол. 2014; 7(4): 501–510.


РЕФЕРАТ

В статье представлены современные данные о роли стромальной ниши костного мозга в регуляции гемопоэтических стволовых клеток (ГСК). Отражены этапы формирования концепции гемопоэтической ниши. Дана характеристика стромальных клеточных элементов, образующих нишу, и освещены механизмы регуляции ГСК. Обсуждаются вопросы роли ниши в лейкозной трансформации ГСК. Представлены сведения о структурных изменениях ниши при нарушении развития ГСК.


Ключевые слова: гемопоэтические стволовые клетки, костный мозг, ниша гемопоэтических стволовых клеток, микроокружение.

Принято в печать: 1 сентября 2014 г.

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Основные закономерности ангиогенеза при онкогематологических заболеваниях

А.А. Вартанян

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический центр им Н.Н. Блохина» РАМН, Москва, Российская Федерация


РЕФЕРАТ

Концепция о том, что VEGF-индуцируемый ангиогенез — фактор, лимитирующий рост солидных опухолей, сегодня считается общепринятой. Исследования последних лет показывают, что ангиогенез также необходимое условие прогрессии онкогематологических заболеваний. Процесс ветвления близлежащих сосудов в костном мозге начинается с выброса опухолевыми клетками растворимых активаторов ангиогенеза. Основным медиатором, стимулирующим формирование микрососудов в костном мозге, считается VEGF. С другой стороны, повышенная секреция VEGF приводит к высвобождению клетками микроокружения GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-6, PlGF, HGF, IGF, цитокинов, способствующих выживанию и пролиферации злокачественных миелоидных и лимфоидных клеток. Увеличение уровня VEGF в плазме онкогематологических больных считается неблагоприятным прогностическим фактором течения болезни.

В настоящем обзоре обсуждаются основные закономерности формирования аутокринного и паракринного пула VЕGF, ангиогенез-зависимая и -независимая функции VEGF, а также результаты клинического изучения антиангиогенных препаратов в онкогематологии.


Ключевые слова: онкогематология, костный мозг, ангиогенез, антиангиогенная терапия.

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Смешанный химеризм после аллогенной трансплантации костного мозга: собственные клинические наблюдения

К.Н. Мелкова, Н.В. Горбунова, Т.З. Чернявская

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» РАМН, Москва, Российская Федерация


РЕФЕРАТ

Мониторирование химеризма после аллогенной трансплантации костного мозга (аллоТКМ) количественной полимеразной цепной реакции (ПЦР) важно для оценки эффективности трансплантации, раннего выявления рецидивов опухоли и своевременной коррекции терапии. В настоящей публикации представлены клинические примеры смешанного химеризма после аллоТКМ.


Ключевые слова: аллогенная трансплантация, химеризм, смешанный химеризм, костный мозг, гемопоэтические стволовые клетки

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ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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