Цитогенетические и молекулярно-генетические факторы прогноза острых лимфобластных лейкозов

А.В. Мисюрин

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Андрей Витальевич Мисюрин, канд. биол. наук, Каширское ш., д. 24, Moсква, Российская Федерация, 115478; e-mail: and@genetechnology.ru

Для цитирования: Мисюрин А.В. Цитогенетические и молекулярно-генетические факторы прогноза острых лимфобластных лейкозов. Клиническая онкогематология. 2017;10(3):317–23.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2017-10-3-317-323


РЕФЕРАТ

В обзоре представлены характерные и воспроизводимые при острых лимфобластных лейкозах (ОЛЛ) перестройки хромосом, которые можно обнаружить при стандартном цитогенетическом исследовании (окраска на G-полосы) или методом FISH. Более тонкие генетические изменения, недоступные для наблюдения цитогенетиков, выявляются с помощью современных методов молекулярно-биологической диагностики. Показано прогностическое значение цитогенетических и молекулярно-генетических маркеров ОЛЛ. Представлен минимальный набор клинически значимых молекулярных маркеров, которые целесообразно исследовать при ОЛЛ.

Ключевые слова: острый лимфобластный лейкоз, хромосомная аномалия, химерный онкоген, экспрессия гена, мутация гена.

Получено: 3 декабря 2016 г.

Принято в печать: 8 марта 2017 г.

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Цитогенетические и молекулярно-генетические факторы прогноза острых миелоидных лейкозов

А.В. Мисюрин

ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Moсква, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Андрей Витальевич Мисюрин, канд. биол. наук, Каширское ш., д. 24, Moсква, Российская Федерация, 115478; e-mail: and@genetechnology.ru

Для цитирования: Мисюрин А.В. Цитогенетические и молекулярно-генетические факторы прогноза острых миелоидных лейкозов. Клиническая онкогематология. 2017;10(2):227–34.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2017-10-2-227-234


РЕФЕРАТ

В обзоре приведены данные о диагностическом и прогностическом значении цитогенетических и молекулярно-генетических маркеров острых миелоидных лейкозов (ОМЛ). Показано, что в ряде случаев выделенные ранее на основе клинико-морфоцитохимических характеристик варианты ОМЛ можно разграничить благодаря обнаружению специфических генетических и хромосомных дефектов. Тем не менее, некоторые одинаковые повторяющиеся хромосомные аномалии могут быть обнаружены у больных ОМЛ, заболевание у которых согласно клинико-морфоцитохимическим признакам можно отнести к разным вариантам миелоидного лейкоза. В настоящее время признается, что изменение кариотипа является определяющим фактором прогноза, имеющим более существенное значение, чем критерии, основанные на морфологических и цитохимических признаках. В связи с этим выбор риск-адаптированной программы лечения ОМЛ следует проводить с учетом результатов цитогенетического исследования. В обзоре особый раздел посвящен известным к настоящему времени мутациям генов, которые могут влиять на результаты лечения ОМЛ.

Ключевые слова: ОМЛ, хромосомная аномалия, химерный онкоген, экспрессия гена, мутация гена.

Получено: 16 сентября 2016 г.

Принято в печать: 3 января 2017 г.

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