Неходжкинские лимфомы у детей: 25 лет терапии

Т.Т. Валиев, А.В. Попа, А.С. Левашов, Е.С. Беляева, Н.С. Куличкина, Б.В. Курдюков, Р.С. Равшанова, Г.Л. Менткевич

НИИ детской онкологии и гематологии ФГБУ «Российский онкологический научный центр им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Москва, Каширское ш., д. 24, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Тимур Теймуразович Валиев, д-р мед. наук, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; тел.: +7(499)324-98-69; e-mail: timurvaliev@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Валиев Т.Т., Попа А.В., Левашов А.С. и др. Неходжкинские лимфомы у детей: 25 лет терапии. Клиническая онкогематология. 2016;9(4):420–37.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-4-420-437


РЕФЕРАТ

Актуальность и цели. Современные программы полихимиотерапии, в основе которых лежит дифференцированный риск-адаптированный подход, позволили рассматривать неходжкинские лимфомы (НХЛ), ранее считавшимися фатальными, как потенциально излечимые заболевания. Цель настоящей работы — обобщение и анализ результатов лечения НХЛ за 25-летний период.

Методы. В исследование включено 246 больных, проходивших лечение в отделении химиотерапии гемобластозов НИИ ДОГ ФГБУ «РОНЦ им. Н.Н. Блохина» МЗ РФ за 25 лет: с 1.04.1991 по 1.06.2016 г. При В-клеточных НХЛ (n = 130) использовались программы B-NHL-BFM 90/95, а также модифицированная программа B-NHL-BFM 95 (включен ритуксимаб). Больным лимфобластным лейкозом (n = 75) лечение проводилось по протоколам ALL-mBFM 90/95 и ALL IC-BFM 2002. При анапластической крупноклеточной лимфоме (АККЛ) 21 больной получил лечение по протоколу B-NHL-BFM 90/95, 20 — по программе НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007.

Результаты. С учетом клинико-иммунологических особенностей АККЛ авторами был разработан оригинальный протокол НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007. Особое внимание уделялось возможности модификации стандартных программ лечения НХЛ из зрелых В-клеток (В-НХЛ) путем включения ритуксимаба. Показана эволюция в назначении ритуксимаба при В-НХЛ и возможность редукции общего числа блоков полихимиотерапии при поздних стадиях опухоли без снижения результатов лечения.

Заключение. Полученные данные позволяют считать, что внедрение достижений онкоиммунологии, молекулярной биологии и цитогенетики станет основой последующей модификации существующих программ терапии НХЛ.


Ключевые слова: лимфома Беркитта, диффузная В-крупноклеточная лимфома, анапластическая крупноклеточная лимфома, первичная медиастинальная (тимическая) В-крупноклеточная лимфома, Т- и В-лимфобластные лимфомы, лечение, дети.

Получено: 12 июня 2016 г.

Принято в печать: 17 июня 2016 г.

Читать статью в PDFpdficon


ЛИТЕРАТУРА

  1. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al, eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th edition. Lyon: IARC Press; 2008. pp. 439.
  2. Burkhardt B, Zimmermann M, Oschlies I, et al. The impact of age and gender on biology, clinical features and treatment outcome of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood and adolescence. Br J Haematol. 2005;131(1):39–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2005.05735.x.
  3. Hochberg J, Waxman IM, Kelly KM, et al. Adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma: state of the science. Br J Haematol. 2009;144(1):24–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2008.07393.x.
  4. Baccarani M, Corbelli G, Amadori S, et al. Adolescent and adult lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic features outcome of therapy. А study of 293 patients. Blood. 1982;60(3):677–84.
  5. Gill PS, Meyer PR, Pavlova Z, et al. B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: clinical, morphologic and immunologic findings. J Clin Oncol. 1986;4(5):737–43.
  6. Bernstein JI, Coleman CN, Strickler JG, et al. Combined modality therapy for adult with small noncleaved cell lymphoma (Burkitt and Burkitt-like type). J Clin Oncol. 1986;4(6):847–58.
  7. Reiter A, Schrappe M, Tiemann M, et al. Improved treatment results in childhood B-cell neoplasms with tailored intensification of therapy: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Group Trial NHL-BFM-90. Blood. 1999;94(10):3294–306.
  8. Patte C, J. Michon, Frappaz D, et al. Therapy of Burkitt and other B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoma: experience with the LMB protocols of the SFOP (French Paediatric Oncology Society) in children and adults. Bail Clin Haematol. 1994;7(2):339–48. doi: 10.1016/s0950-3536(05)80206-
  9. Patte C, Philip T, Rodary C, et al. High survival rate in advanced-stage B-cell lymphomas and leukemias without CNS involvement with a short intensive polychemotherapy: results from the French Pediatric Oncology Society of a randomized trial of 216 children. J Clin Oncol. 1991;9(1):123–32.
  10. Sun XF, Su YS, Liu DG, et al. Comparing CHOP, CHOP+HD-MTX, and BFM-90 regimens in the survival rate of children and adolescents with B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ai Zheng. 2004;23(8):933–8.
  11. Muller J, Csoka M, Jakab Z, et al. Hungarian experience with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood. Magy Onkol. 2006;50(3):253–9.
  12. Cairo MS, Sposto R, Gerrard M, et al. Advanced stage, increased lactate dehydrogenase, and primary site, but not adolescent age (³ 15 years), are associated with an increased risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: results of the FAB LMB 96 study. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(4):387–93. doi: 10.1200/jco.2010.33.3369.
  13. Schwenn M, Blattner S, Lynch E, et al. HiC-COM: a 2-month intensive chemotherapy regimen for children with stage III and IV Burkitt’s lymphoma and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1991;9(1):133–8.
  14. Bowman WP, Shuster JJ, Cook B, et al. Improved survival for children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and stage IV small noncleaved-cell lymphoma: a pediatric oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(4):1252–61.
  15. Magrath I, Adde M, Shad A, et al. Adults and children with small non-cleaved-cell lymphoma have similar excellent outcome when treated with the same chemotherapy regimen. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(3):925–34.
  16. Atra A, Gerrard M, Hobson R, et al. Improved cure rate in children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and IV stage B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma – results of the UKCCSG 9003 protocol. Br J Cancer. 1998;77(12):2281–5. doi: 10.1038/bjc.1998.379.
  17. Burkhardt B, Oschlies I, Klapper W, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in adolescents: experiences in 378 adolescent NHL patients treated according to pediatric NHL-BFM protocols. Leukemia. 2011;25(1):153–60. doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.245.
  18. Patte C, Auperin A, Michon J, et al. The Societe Francaise d’Oncologie Pediatrique LMB89 protocol: highly effective multiagent chemotherapy tailored to the tumor burden and initial response in 561 unselected children with B-cell lymphomas and L3 leukemia. Blood. 2001;97(11):3370–9. doi: 10.1182/blood.v97.11.3370.
  19. Patte C, Auperin A, Gerrard M, et al. Results of the randomized international FAB/LMB96 trial for intermediate risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: it is possible to reduce treatment for the early responding patients. Blood. 2007;109(7):2773–80. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-07-
  20. Laver JH, Kraveka JM, Hutchison RE, et al. Advanced-stage large-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: results of a randomized trial incorporating intermediate-dose methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine in the maintenance phase of the APO regimen: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(3):541–7. doi: 10.1200/jco.2005.11.075.
  21. Woessmann W, Seidemann K, Mann G.et al. The impact of the methotrexate administration schedule and dose in the treatment of children and adolescents with B-cell neoplasms: a report of the BFM Group Study NHL-BFM95. Blood. 2005;105(3):948–58. doi: 10.1182/blood-2004-03-
  22. Gerrard M, Cairo MS, Weston C, et al. Excellent survival following two courses of COPAD chemotherapy. Br J Haematol. 2008;141(6):840–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2008.07144.x.
  23. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Lauterbach I, et al. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(9):1782–19. doi: 10.1200/jco.2003.08.151.
  24. Akbayram S, Dogan M, Akgun C, et al. Use of rituximab in three children with relapsed/refractory Burkitt lymphoma. Target Oncol. 2010;5(4):291–4. doi: 10.1007/s11523-010-0161-
  25. Okur VF, Oguz A, Karadeniz C, et al. Refractoriness to rituximab monotherapy in a child with relapsed/refractory Burkitt non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23(1):25–31. doi: 10.1080/08880010500313298.
  26. Holmberg LA, Maloney D, Bensinger W. Immunotherapy with rituximab/interleukin-2 after autologous stem cell transplantation as treatment for CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Clin Lymph Myel. 2006;7(2):135–9. doi: 10.3816/clm.2006.n.051.
  27. Cooney-Qualter E, Krailo M, Angiolillo A.et al. A Phase I Study of 90Yttrium-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan in Children and Adolescents with Relapsed/Refractory CD20-Positive Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Children’s Oncology Group study. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13(Suppl 18):5652–60. doi: 10.1158/1078-ccr-07-1060.
  28. Richard H, Termuhlen A, Smith L, et al. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with refractory or relapsed lymphoma: results of Children’s Oncology Group Study A5962. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17(2):249–58. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.07.002.
  29. Pinkel D, Johnson W, Aur RJ. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children. Br J Cancer. 1975;2:298–23.
  30. Wollner N, Exelby PR, Lieberman PH. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children: a progress report on the original patients treated with the LSA2-L2 protocol. Cancer. 1979;44(6):1990–9. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(197912)44:6<1990::aid-cncr2820440605>3.0.co;2-
  31. Asselin BL, Devidas M, Wang C, et al. Effectiveness of high-dose methotrexate in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and advanced-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma: a randomized study by the Children’s Oncology Group (POG 9404). Blood. 2011;118(4):874–83. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-06-
  32. Wiernik P, Goldman J, Dutcher J. Neoplastic disease of the blood. Cambridge; 1216 p.
  33. Tubergen D, Krailo M, Meadows A, et al. Comparison of treatment regimens for pediatric lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a Children’s Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol Leuk. 1999;13(3):335–42.
  34. Amylon MD, Shuster J, Pullen J, et al. Intensive high-dose asparaginase consolidation improves survival for pediatric patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and advanced stage lymphoblastic lymphoma; Pediatr Oncol Group study. Leukemia. 1999;13(3):335–42. doi: 1038/sj.leu.2401310.
  35. Patte C, Philip T, Rodary C, et al. Improved survival rate in children with stage III-IV B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia using multiagent chemotherapy: results of a study of 114 children from the French Pediatric Oncology Society. J Clin Oncol. 1986;4(8):1219–26.
  36. Reiter A, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, et al. Favorable outcome of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood: a report of three consecutive studies of the BFM group. Blood. 1992;80(10):2471–8.
  37. Reiter A, Schrappe M, Parwaresch R, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of childhood and adolescence: results of a treatment stratified for biologic subtypes and stage – a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Group. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13(2):359–72.
  38. Nachman J, Sather HN, Cherlow JM, et al. Response of children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with and without cranial irradiation: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(3):920–30.
  39. Tang JY, Xue HL, Chen J, et al. Multi-center trial based on SCMC-ALL-2005 for children’s acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013;51(7):495–501.
  40. Tallen G, Ratei R, Mann G, et al. Long-term outcome in children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia after time-point and site-of-relapse stratification and intensified short-course multidrug chemotherapy: results of trial ALL-REZ BFM 90. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(14):2339–47. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.25.1983.
  41. Dunsmore KP, Devidas M, Linda SB, et al. Pilot study of nelarabine in combination with intensive chemotherapy in high-risk T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(22):2753–9. doi: 10.1200/jco.2011.40.8724.
  42. Lambe CU, Averett DR, Paff MT, et al. 2-Amino-6-methoxypurine arabinoside: an agent for T-cell malignancies. Cancer Res. 1995;55(15):3352–6.
  43. Cooper TM, Razzouk BI, Gerbing R, et al. Phase I/II trial of clofarabine and cytarabine in children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AAML0523): a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(7):1141–7. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24398.
  44. Schroeder H, Garwicz S, Kristinsson J, et al. Outcome after first relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based study of 315 patients from the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO). Med Pediatr Oncol. 1995;25(5):372–8. doi: 10.1002/mpo.2950250503.
  45. Rosenwald A, Wright G, Leroy K, et al. Molecular diagnosis of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma identifies a clinically favourable subgroup of diffuse large B cell lymphoma related to Hodgkin lymphoma. J Exp Med. 2003;198(6):851–62. doi: 10.1084/jem.20031074.
  46. Borgmann A, von Stackelberg A, Hartmann R, et al. Unrelated donor stem cell transplantation compared with chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission: a matched-pair analysis. 2003;101(10):3835–9. doi: 10.1182/blood.v101.10.3835.
  47. Wheeler K, Richards S, Bailey C, et al. Comparison of bone marrow transplant and chemotherapy for relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: the MRC UKALL X experience. Medical Research Council Working Party on Childhood Leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 1998;101(1):94–103. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.1998.00676.x.
  48. Stein H, Mason DY, Gerdes J, et al. The expression of Hodgkin’s disease associated antigen Ki-1 in reactive and neoplasic lymphoid tissue: evidence that Reed-Sternberg cells and histiocytic malignancies are derived from avtivated lymphoid cells. Blood. 1985;66(4):848–58.
  49. Ferreri AJ, Govi S, Pileri SA, Savage KJ. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013;85(2):206–15. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2012.06.004.
  50. Sibon D, Fournier M, Briere J, et al. Prognostic Factors and Long Term Outcome of 138 Adults with Systemic Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: a Retrospective Study by the Groupe d’Etude Des Lymphomes De l’Adulte (GELA). Blood. 2010;116: Abstract 322.
  51. Park SJ, Kim S, Lee DH, et al. Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in Korean Adults: 11 Years’ Experience at Asan Medical Center. Yonsei Med J. 2008;49(4):601–9. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2008.49.4.601.
  52. Wang YF, Yang YL, Gao ZF, et al. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients. J Hematol Oncol. 2012;5(1):38. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-5-38.
  53. Amin HM, Lai R. Pathobiology of ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2007;110(7):2259–67. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-04-060715.
  54. Moreno L, Garzon L, Bautista FJ, et al. Diagnosis of paediatric anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a historical perspective from a single institution. Clin Transl Oncol. 2009;11(5):318–21. doi: 10.1007/s12094-009-0360-
  55. Le Deley MC, Reiter A, Williams D, et al. Prognostic factors in childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma: results of a large European intergroup study. Blood. 2008;111(3):1560–6. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-07-
  56. Pillon M, Gregucci F, Lombardi A, et al. Results of AIEOP LNH-97 protocol for the treatment of anaplastic large cell lymphoma of childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;59(5):828–33. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24125.
  57. Gascoyne RD, Aoun P, Wu D, et al. Prognostic significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein expression in adults with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Blood. 1999;93(11):3913–21.
  58. Savage KJ, Harris NL, Vose JM, et al. ALK- anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is clinically and immunophenotypically different from both ALK+ALCL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: report from the International Peripheral Tcell Lymphoma Project. Blood. 2008;111(12):5496–504. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-01-
  59. Abramov D, Oschlies I, Zimmermann M, et al. Expression of CD8 is associated with non-common type morphology and outcome in pediatric anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Haematologica. 2013;98(10):1547–53. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2013.085837.
  60. Damm-Welk C, Mussolin L, Zimmermann M, et al. Early assessment of minimal residual disease identifies patients at very high relapse risk in NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2014;123(3):334–7. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-09-
  61. Bonvini P, Gastaldi T, Falini B, et al. Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), a novel Hsp90-client tyrosine kinase: down-regulation of NPM-ALK expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in ALK+ CD30+ lymphoma cells by Hsp90 antagonist 17-allylamino, 17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Cancer Res. 2002;62(5):1559–66.
  62. Ergin M, Denning MF, Izban KF, et al. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma with NPM-ALK (p80) fusion protein. Exp Hematol. 2001;29(9):1082–90. doi: 10.1016/s0301-472x(01)00688-
  63. Han Y, Amin HM, Franko B, et al. Loss of SHP1 enhances JAK3/STAT3 signaling and decreases proteasome degradation of JAK3 and NPM-ALK in ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2006;108(8):2796–803. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-04-
  64. Ogura M, Tobinai K, Hatake K, et al. Phase I/II study of brentuximab vedotin in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory CD30-positive Hodgkin’s lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Cancer Sci. 2014;105(7):840–6. doi: 10.1111/cas.12435.
  65. Mosse YP, Lim MS, Voss SD, et al. Safety and activity of crizotinib for paediatric patients with refractory solid tumours or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a Children’s Oncology Group phase 1 consortium study. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(6):472–80. doi: 10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70095-
  66. Brugieres L, Le Deley MC, Rosolen A, et al. Impact of the methotrexate administration dose on the need for intrathecal treatment in children and adolescents with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a results of a randomized trial of the EICNHL Group. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(6):897–903. doi: 10.1200/jco.2008.18.1487.
  67. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Schrappe M, et al. Short-pulse B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma-type chemotherapy is efficacious treatment for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Group Trial NHL-BFM 90. Blood. 2001;97(12):3699–706. doi: 10.1182/blood.v97.12.3699.
  68. Woessmann W, Zimmermann M, Lenhard M, et al. Relapsed or refractory anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents after Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (BFM)-type first-line therapy: a BFM-group study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(22):3065–71. doi: 10.1200/jco.2011.34.8417.
  69. Goldberg JD, Casulo C, Horwitz The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. In: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Springer; 2013. pp. 279–93. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5851-7_16.
  70. Giulino-Roth L, Ricafort R, Kernan NA, et al. Ten-year follow-up of pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(12):2018–24. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24722.
  71. Woessmann W, Peters C, Lenhard M. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma of children and adolescents – a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster group report. Br J Haematol. 2006;133(2):176–82. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06004.x.
  72. Mori T, Takimoto T, Katano N, et al. Recurrent childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of registered cases in Japan. Br J Haematol. 2006;132(5):594–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2005.05910.x.
  73. Луговская С.А., Почтарь М.Е., Тупицын Н.Н. Иммунофенотипирование в диагностике гемобластозов. М.: Триада, 2005. 165 с. [Lugovskaya SA, Pochtar’ ME, Tupitsyn NN. Immunofenotipirovanie v diagnostike gemoblastozov. (Immunophenotyping in diagnosis of hemoblastoses.) Moscow: Triada Publ.; 2005. 165 p. (In Russ)]
  74. Курильников А.Я. Мабтера — первые моноклональные антитела в терапии неходжкинских лимфом. Современная онкология. 2002;4(1):25–8. [Kuril’nikov AYa. Mabtera: first monoclonal antibodies in therapy of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Sovremennaya onkologiya. 2002;4(1):25–8. (In Russ)]
  75. Reff M, Carner C, Chambers K, et al. Depletion of B-cells in vivo by a chimeric mouse human monoclonal antibody to CD20. Blood. 1994;83(2):435–45.
  76. Okur FV, Oguz A, Karadeniz C, et al. Refractoriness to rituximab monotherapy in a child with relapsed/refractory Burkitt non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23(1):25–31. doi: 10.1080/08880010500313298.
  77. Marcus R, Hagenbeek A. The therapeutic use of rituximab in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2007;78(s67):5–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2006.00789.x.
  78. Plosker GL, Figgitt DP. Rituximab. Drugs. 2003;63(8):803–43. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200363080-
  79. Михайлова Н.Б. Роль ритуксимаба в лечении неходжкинских лимфом (реферативный обзор рандомизированных клинических исследований). Современная онкология. 2009;11(3):28–31. [Mikhailova NB. Role of rituximab in treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (abstract review of randomized clinical trials). Sovremennaya onkologiya. 2009;11(3):28–31. (In Russ)]
  80. Li X, Liu Z, Cao J, et al. Rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy for the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma in China: a 10-year retrospective follow-up analysis of 437 cases from Shanghai Lymphoma Research Group. Ann Hematol. 2012;91(6):837–45. doi: 10.1007/s00277-011-1375-
  81. Thomas DA, Faderl S, O’Brien S, et al. Chemoimmunotherapy with hyper-CVAD plus rituximab for the treatment of adult Burkitt and Burkitt-type lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 2006;106(7):1569–80. doi: 10.1002/cncr.21776.
  82. Fayad L, Thomas D, Romaguera J. Update of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience with hyper-CVAD and rituximab for the treatment of mantle cell and Burkitt-type lymphomas. Clin Lymph Myel. 2007;8(2):57–62. doi: 10.3816/clm.2007.s.034.
  83. Meinhardt A, Burkhardt B, Zimmermann M, et al. Phase II Window Study on Rituximab in Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Burkitt Leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(19):3115–21. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.26.6791.
  84. Bilic E, Femenic R, Conja J, et al. CD20-positive childhood B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma: morphology, immunophenotype and a novel treatment approach: a single center experience. Coll Antropol. 2010;34(1):171–5.
  85. Смирнова Н.В., Мякова Н.В., Белогурова М.Б. и др. Лечение зрелоклеточных В-клеточных неходжкинских лимфом с использованием комбинированной иммунохимиотерапии: возможности оптимизации терапевтической стратегии. Онкогематология. 2015;10(4):15–24. doi: 10.17650/1818-8346-2015-10-4-15-24. [Smirnova NV, Myakova NV, Belogurova MB, et al. Treatment of B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphomas with combined immunochemotherapy: ability to treatment optimization. Oncohematology. 2015;10(4):15–24. doi: 10.17650/1818-8346-2015-10-4-15-24. (In Russ)]
  86. Miyamoto KI, Kobayashi Y, Maeshima AM, et al. Clinicopathological prognostic factors of 24 patients with B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Int J Hematol. 2016;103(6):693–702. doi: 1007/s12185-016-1989-z.
  87. Gerrard M, Cairo MS, Weston C, et al. Excellent survival following two courses of COPAD chemotherapy. Br J Haematol. 2008;141(6):840–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2008.07144.x.
  88. Patte C, Auperin A, Gerrard M, et al. Results of the randomized international FAB/LMB96 trial for intermediate risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: it is possible to reduce treatment for the early responding patients. Blood. 2007;109(7):2773–80. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-07-
  89. Stary J, Zimmermann M, Campbell M, et al. Intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the randomized intercontinental trial ALL IC-BFM 2002. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(3):174–84. doi: 10.1200/jco.2013.48.6522.