Immunohistochemical Subtype and Parameters of International Prognostic Index in the New Prognostic Model of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

SV Samarina1, AS Luchinin1, NV Minaeva1, IV Paramonov1, DA D’yakonov1, EV Vaneeva1, VA Rosin1, SV Gritsaev2

1 Kirov Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027

2 Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024

For correspondence: Svetlana Valer’evna Samarina, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027; Tel.: +7(912)732-47-56; e-mail: samarinasv2010@mail.ru

For citation: Samarina SV, Luchinin AS, Minaeva NV, et al. Immunohistochemical Subtype and Parameters of International Prognostic Index in the New Prognostic Model of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(4):385–90 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-4-385-390


ABSTRACT

Aim. To develop an integrated prognostic model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) on the basis of immunohistochemical tumor subtype and parameters of International Prognostic Index (IPI).

Materials & Methods. Out of 104 DLBCL patients in the data base 81 (77.9 %) met the eligibility criteria. Median age was 58 years (range 23–83). All patients were treated with R-СНОР. The creation of overall survival (OS) prognostic model for DLBCL patients was based on machine learning with classification and regression trees. OS was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. Survival curves were compared by means of log rank test and hazard ratio (HR). Any test was considered significant if two-sided level of < 0.05 was reached.

Results. Following the developed model three groups of patients were identified: the 1st group of low risk (the combination of low, intermediate-low, and intermediate-high risks according to IPI and GCB subtype); the 2nd group of intermediate risk (the combination of low, intermediate-low, and intermediate-high risks according to IPI and non-GCB subtype); the 3d group of high risk (irrespective of subtype). In the group of low risk (n = 26) 2-year OS during the monitoring period was 100 %. In the group of intermediate risk (n = 34) median OS was not reached, 2-year OS was 74 %, and expected 5-year OS was 68 %. In the group of high risk (n = 21) median OS was 25 months, 2-year OS was 46 %, and expected 5-year OS was 37 % (log rank< 0.0001). HR calculated for the high-risk group compared with the low- and intermediate-risk groups was 5.1 (95% CI 2.1–12.1; p = 0.0003).

Conclusion. A new integrated system of DLBCL prognosis is suggested which includes IPI risk parameters and immunohistochemical subtype based on Hans algorithm. This prognostic system can be used in clinical practice for DLBCL patient stratification and risk-adapted therapy.

Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, overall survival, prognosis, International Prognostic Index, machine learning.

Received: March 18, 2019

Accepted: August 27, 2019

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Primary Bone Lymphomas: Long-Term Results of a Prospective Single-Center Trial

AK Smol’yaninova, NG Gabeeva, VE Mamonov, SA Tatarnikova, LG Gorenkova, DS Badmadzhapova, AM Kovrigina, EG Gemdzhian, EE Zvonkov

National Medical Hematology Research Center, 4a Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167

For correspondence: Anna Konstantinovna Smol’yaninova, MD, PhD, 4a Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167; Tel.: +7(495)612-23-61, +7(926)912-31-16; e-mail: annmo8@mail.ru

For citation: Smol’yaninova AK, Gabeeva NG, Mamonov VE, et al. Primary Bone Lymphomas: Long-Term Results of a Prospective Single-Center Trial. Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(3):247–62 (In Russ).

doi: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-3-247-262


ABSTRACT

Background. Primary bone lymphomas (PBL) are rare extranodal lymphomas. In more than 90 % of cases they are reported as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). At local (IE) stage of PBL the standard R-CHOP immunotherapy demonstrates efficacy over 90 %. If, however, such poor prognostic factors (PPF) as multiple bone lesions (IVЕ stage), increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, B-symptoms, and large tumor mass are identified, R-CHOP efficacy tends to decrease. There is currently no optimal regimen for treatment of PBL patients with PPF. We suggest intensified multi-agent chemotherapy for this category of patients.

Aim. To assess long-term results of prospective single-center trial on the use of high-dose mNHL-BFM-90 program in patients with primary bone DLBCL and PPF.

Materials & Methods. The trial included 33 patients with primary bone DLBCL followed-up at the National Medical Hematology Research Center from 2006 to 2018. The median age of patients was 44 years (range 16–78 years). The spectrum of assessed data included main clinical, laboratory, X-ray and MRI tumor characteristics as well as survival rates and prognostic factors.

Results. PPF were identified in 29 (88 %) patients, out of them 20 (61 %) patients had an advanced stage (˃ IE), 20 (59 %) patients showed an increased LDH activity, B-symptoms were identified in 15 (45 %) patients, and large tumor mass was reported in 23 (71 %) patients. High-dose antitumor treatment (mNHL-BFM-90) was administered in 27 out of 33 patients. Overall and progression-free survival within the period of 5 years was 92 %. None of PPF significantly influenced survival rates.

Conclusion. The use of high-dose mNHL-BFM-90 program in PBL with poor prognosis achieves long-term remissions in 92 % patients. We recommend mNHL-BFM-90 as a therapy of choice for PBL patients with poor prognosis.

Keywords: primary bone lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high-dose intensified multi-agent mNHL-BFM-90 program.

Received: January 25, 2019

Accepted: May 12, 2019

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Analysis Results of the Regional Registry of Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: Risk Factors and Chemo-Immunotherapy Issues

KD Kaplanov1,2, NP Volkov1, TYu Klitochenko1, IV Matveeva1, AL Shipaeva1, MN Shirokova1, NV Davydova3, EG Gemdzhian4, DS Abramov5, DM Konovalov5, GL Snigur2, NA Red’kina1

1 Volgograd Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary No. 1, 78 Zemlyachki str., Volgograd, Russian Federation, 400138

2 Volgograd Medical Scientific Center, 1G Rokossovskogo str., Volgograd, Russian Federation, 400081

3 Consultation and Diagnosis Polyclinic No. 2, 114A Angarskaya str., Volgograd, Russian Federation, 400081

4 National Medical Hematology Research Center, 4а Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167

5 Dmitry Rogachev National Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, 1 Samory Mashela str., Moscow, Russian Federation, 117997

For correspondence: Kamil’ Daniyalovich Kaplanov, MD, PhD, 78 Zemlyachki str., Volgograd, Russian Federation, 400138; e-mail: kamilos@mail.ru

For citation: Kaplanov KD, Volkov NP, Klitochenko TYu, et al. Analysis Results of the Regional Registry of Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: Risk Factors and Chemo-Immunotherapy Issues. Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(2):154–64.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-2-154-164


ABSTRACT

Background & Aims. At least one third of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are resistant to first-line therapy. R-CHOP chemo-immunotherapy does not yield acceptable results in high-risk patients. Effectiveness of options based either on increasing the dose intensity or on including auto-HSCT into the first-line therapy was not supported by the results of controlled studies. With this background the present study focuses on options, issues and failures of first-line on the basis of long-term follow-up of DLBCL patient population in the Volgograd Region.

Materials & Methods. From 2004 to 2017 the population-based registry of the Hematology Department in the Volgograd Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary included all 492 primary DLBCL patients: 235 (48 %) men and 257 (52 %) women aged 18 to 88 years. Mean and median age was 59 and 61 years, respectively. CHOP therapy was administered to 206 (42 %) patients, and 223 (45 %) patients received R-CHOP. Other regimens including NHL-BFM-90 and R-DA-EPOCH were used only in 63 (13 %) patients. Second- and third-line therapies were administered to 145 (30 %) and 54 (11 %) patients, respectively. Value of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and immunomorphologic characteristics was determined by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Pharmacoeconomic aspect of first-line therapy failures was analyzed using Markov model.

Results. Improvement of DLBCL therapy effects with the use of R-CHOP chemo-immunotherapy is particularly obvious in the groups with favorable and intermediate prognosis with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 90 % and 69 %, respectively. R-CHOP results are not considered to be satisfactory in the high-risk group: 5-year OS was 38 %. Pharmacoeconomic analysis proves the advantage of chemo-immunotherapy strategy in comparison with the period before rituximab era in terms of the life years gained (LYG) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). With respect to immunotherapy effects the most significant immunomorphologic parameter is bcl-2 tumor cell expression. In the group of patients with bcl-2 > 50 % 5-year OS was 61 % with median of 88 months, event-free survival (EFS) was 52 % with median of 62 months. In the group without bcl-2 expression above the threshold 5-year OS and EFS were 88 % and 75 %, respectively, medians were not achieved. With c-myc and bcl-2 coexpression EFS and OS appeared to be even worse: 5-year EFS was 29 % with median of 6 months, and 5-year OS was 31 % with median of 15 months.

Conclusion. The analysis of actual practice demonstrates the need for new options of first-line therapy for DLBCL high-risk patients and also for introducing new discriminating prognostic factors which include the IPI-independent ones.

Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, R-CHOP, chemoimmunotherapy, survival, pharmacoeconomics, Markov model, life years gained (LYG), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

Received: July 16, 2018

Accepted: January 10, 2019

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Clinical and Hematological Predictors of Response to First-Line Therapy in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

SV Samarina1, EL Nazarova1, NV Minaeva1, EN Zotina1, IV Paramonov1, SV Gritsaev2

1 Kirov Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027

2 Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024

For correspondence: Svetlana Valer’evna Samarina, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027; e-mail: samarinasv2010@mail.ru

For citation: Samarina SV, Nazarova EL, Minaeva NV, et al. Clinical and Hematological Predictors of Response to First-Line Therapy in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(1):68–72.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-1-68-72


ABSTRACT

Aim. To assess the prognostic value of clinical and hematological parameters used by hematologists for risk stratification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and to justify the need for discovering new prognostic factors.

Methods. The trial included 101 patients (48 men and 53 women) with newly diagnosed DLBCL at the age of 18–80 years (median age 58 years). The patients received R-CHOP as first-line therapy. Depending on their response all patients were stratified into 4 groups: with complete response (CR; n = 58), partial response (PR; n = 15), resistance to first-line therapy (n = 19), and early relapses (ER; n = 9). Median follow-up was 22 months (range 2–120 months).

Results. In terms of age influence on the efficacy of R-СНОР as first-line therapy no significant differences were established in regard to response in patients younger and older than 65 years. Statistically significant differences were observed while analyzing two parameters of International Prognostic Index (IPI; disease stage and extranodal lesions) and B-symptoms in the CR and therapy-resistant groups. With respect to the same parameters no significant differences were found in the CR and ER groups. Median 2-year disease-free survival was not achieved in patients with CR. In patients with PR it was 12 months. Median 2-year overall survival in patients with CR, PR, and ER was not achieved, and in patients with therapy-resistant DLBCL it was 10 months.

Conclusion. Results of the trial confirm prognostic value of factors applied for risk stratification in DLBCL. However, variability of clinical course of the disease, especially with a low IPI score, suggests the need for new prognostic parameters associated with the course of DLBCL.

Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, prognosis, induction therapy, survival.

Received: June 5, 2018

Accepted: December 3, 2018

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Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Children: 25-Year Clinical Experience

TT Valiev, AV Popa, AS Levashov, ES Belyaeva, NS Kulichkina, BV Kurdyukov, RS Ravshanova, GL Mentkevich

Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478

For correspondence: Timur Teimurazovich Valiev, DSci, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478; Tel: +7(499)324-98-69; e-mail: timurvaliev@mail.ru

For citation: Valiev TT, Popa AV, Levashov AS, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Children: 25-Year Clinical Experience. Clinical oncohematology. 2016;9(4):420–37 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-4-420-437


ABSTRACT

Background & Aims. Current polychemotherapeutic protocols based on differentiated and risk-adopted approaches permitted to consider non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) potentially curable diseases although they had been considered fatal previously. The aim of this study is to summarize and analyze outcomes of NHL therapy over a 25-year period.

Methods. 246 patients were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the department of chemotherapy of hemoblastoses in the Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology under the NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center over the period of 25 years: from April 1, 1991, till June 1, 2016. B-NHL-BFM 90/95 protocols and a modified B-NHL-BFM 95 protocol (with rituximab) were used for B-cell NHLs (n = 130). Patients with lymphocytic leukemia (n = 75) were treated using ALL-mBFM 90/95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols. 21 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) received treatment according to the B-NHL-BFM 90/95 protocol, and 20 patients received the НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007 protocol.

Results. Taking into account clinical and immunological characteristics of ALCL, the authors invented an original НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007 protocol. Special attention was paid to potential modification of standard treatment regimens for B-cell NHL by adding rituximab. The article demonstrates the evolution in prescription of rituximab for B-cell NHL and possibilities for reduction of the total number of polychemotherapy cycles for late-stage tumors without deterioration of treatment outcomes.

Conclusion. The obtained results permit to conclude that introduction of achievements of oncoimmunology, molecular biology, and cytogenetics will become the basis for further modification of existing treatment options for NHL.


Keywords: Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma, T- and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas, treatment, children.

Received: June 12, 2016

Accepted: June 17, 2016

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Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Children: 25-Year Clinical Experience

TT Valiev, AV Popa, AS Levashov, ES Belyaeva, NS Kulichkina, BV Kurdyukov, RS Ravshanova, GL Mentkevich

Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478

For correspondence: Timur Teimurazovich Valiev, DSci, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478; Tel: +7(499)324-98-69; e-mail: timurvaliev@mail.ru

For citation: Valiev TT, Popa AV, Levashov AS, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Children: 25-Year Clinical Experience. Clinical oncohematology. 2016;9(4):420–37 (In Russ).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-4-420-437


ABSTRACT

Background & Aims. Current polychemotherapeutic protocols based on differentiated and risk-adopted approaches permitted to consider non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) potentially curable diseases although they had been considered fatal previously. The aim of this study is to summarize and analyze outcomes of NHL therapy over a 25-year period.

Methods. 246 patients were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the department of chemotherapy of hemoblastoses in the Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology under the NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center over the period of 25 years: from April 1, 1991, till June 1, 2016. B-NHL-BFM 90/95 protocols and a modified B-NHL-BFM 95 protocol (with rituximab) were used for B-cell NHLs (n = 130). Patients with lymphocytic leukemia (n = 75) were treated using ALL-mBFM 90/95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols. 21 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) received treatment according to the B-NHL-BFM 90/95 protocol, and 20 patients received the НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007 protocol.

Results. Taking into account clinical and immunological characteristics of ALCL, the authors invented an original НИИ ДОГ-АККЛ-2007 protocol. Special attention was paid to potential modification of standard treatment regimens for B-cell NHL by adding rituximab. The article demonstrates the evolution in prescription of rituximab for B-cell NHL and possibilities for reduction of the total number of polychemotherapy cycles for late-stage tumors without deterioration of treatment outcomes.

Conclusion. The obtained results permit to conclude that introduction of achievements of oncoimmunology, molecular biology, and cytogenetics will become the basis for further modification of existing treatment options for NHL.

Keywords: Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma, T- and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas, treatment, children.

Received: June 12, 2016

Accepted: June 17, 2016

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Role of c-MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 Expression in Pathogenesis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

A.E. Misyurina1, V.A. Misyurin2, E.A. Baryakh1, A.M. Kovrigina1, S.K. Kravchenko1

1 Hematology Research Center under the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 4а Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167

2 N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478

For correspondence: A.E. Misyurina, Graduate student 4а Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167; Tel: +7(909)637-32-49; e-mail: anna.lukina1@gmail.com

For citation: Misyurina A.E., Misyurin V.A., Baryakh E.A., Kovrigina A.M., Kravchenko S.K. Role of c-MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 Expression in Pathogenesis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Klin. Onkogematol. 2014; 7(4): 512–521 (In Russ.).


ABSTRACT

According to modern concepts based on results of examination of the gene expression profile, there are several subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL): germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) lymphomas. Genes c-MYC, BCL6, and BCL2 are key regulators of B-cell germinal (follicular) differentiation. Genetic abnormalities with their participation are most common in molecular pathogenesis of DLBCL. A total level of activity as well as mechanisms that lead to overexpression each of these genes and production of corresponding proteins have an impact on a disease prognosis. We assume that quantitative assay of c-MYC, BCL6, and BCL2 gene expression, as well as proteins encoded by these genes, can allow to determine high risk DLBCL patients with great accuracy.


Keywords: diffuse large B cell lymphoma, molecular subtypes, risk groups, c-MYC, BCL6, BCL2.

Accepted: September 8, 2014

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Importance of biochemical studies of brain natriuretic peptide in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

M.O. Yegorova, Ye.N. Komolova, and S.Ye. Samsonova

Hematology Research Center, RF Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russian Federation


ABSTRACT

In this study, we measured the levels of the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the blood of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DBCL) before and after polychemotherapy. The study included 10 patients: 6 males and 4 females at the age of 39 to 63 (mean age = 51 ± 12). The control group consisted of 20 virtually healthy donors. It was shown that measurements of BNP plasma levels in DBCL could identify the patients with the high risk of heart failure. Screening tests with determination of BNP levels can influence the choice of chemotherapy for DBCL.


Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chemotherapy, BNP, myocardial infarction, congestive left ventricular heart failure.

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REFERENCES

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Radiotherapy in combined treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Yu.N. Vinogradova, N.V. Ilin, D.V. Larionov, M.M. Khodzhibekova, N.A. Kostenikov, and L.I. Korytova

Russian Research Centre for Radiology and Surgical Technologies, RF Ministry of Health, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation


ABSTRACT

The study included 86 primary patients (age: 18–83) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, I to IV stages, who received (R)-CHOP regimen and radiotherapy at the CRIRR (at present RRCRST) over the period 2000–2012. The follow-up period median was 42 months (5–120 months). Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG was performed in 45 patients at the various follow-up time-points. In all patients, the changes of hematologic indices were observed using baseline, pre-, and postradiation measurements. After combined treatment completed, remission was achieved in 80 out of 86 (93.0 %) patients, including complete or uncertain complete remission and partial remission in 86.0 % and 7.0 %, respectively. During the initial therapy, disease progression occurred in 6 (7.0 %) patients. After the chemotherapy stage, complete remission was noted in 56 (65.1 %) patients only. Additional radiotherapy promoted the increase in the rate of complete and uncertain complete response by 21.9 %. Disseminated disease relapses developed in 2 out of 80 (2.5 %) patients. The complete response rate in the patients who received radiotherapy using the various fractionation regimens was similar. 5-year overall, relapse-free, and progressionfree survival were 89.7 ± 3.9 %, 96.6 ± 2.4 %, and 85.4 ± 4.8 %, respectively. In 20.6 % of the patients examined after chemotherapy, PET gave positive results, while after the radiotherapy stage, all the patients examined at this time-point were PET-negative. Radiotherapy was accompanied by mainly I–II grade hematologic toxicity, and in 16–58 % of patients, no interruption of treatment were required. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred more frequently at the twice-a-day irradiation.


Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, radiotherapy, positron emission tomography, hematologic toxicity.

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