Genetic Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

OV Blau

Charite Clinic, Berlin Medical University, 30 Hindenburgdamm, Berlin, Germany, 12200

For correspondence: Ol’ga Vladimirovna Blau, DSci, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumorimmunology, Charite University School of Medicine, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200, Berlin, Germany; e-mail:

For citation: Blau OV. Genetic Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clinical oncohematology. 2016;9(3):245-56 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-3-245-256


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal malignancy characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. Most AML patients present different cytogenetic and molecular defects associated with certain biologic and clinical features of the disease. Approximately 50–60 % of de novo AML and 80–95 % of secondary AML patients demonstrate chromosomal aberrations. Structural chromosomal aberrations are the most common cytogenetic abnormalities in about of 40 % of de novo AML patients. A relatively large group of intermediate risk patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) AML demonstrates a variety of outcomes. Current AML prognostic classifications include only some mutations with known prognostic value, namely NPM1, FLT3 and C/EBPa. Patients with NPM1 mutation, but without FLT3-ITD or C/EBPa mutations have a favorable prognosis, whereas patients with FLT3-ITD mutation have a poor prognosis. A new class of mutations affecting genes responsible for epigenetic mechanisms of genome regulations, namely for DNA methylation and histone modification, was found recently. Among them, mutations in genes DNMT3A, IDH1/2, TET2 and some others are the most well-studied mutations to date. A number of studies demonstrated an unfavorable prognostic effect of the DNMT3A mutation in AML. The prognostic significance of the IDH1/2 gene is still unclear. The prognosis is affected by a number of biological factors, including those associated with cytogenetic aberrations and other mutations, especially FLT3 and NPM1. The number of studies of genetic mutations in AML keeps growing. The data on genetic aberrations in AML obtained to date confirm their role in the onset and development of the disease.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, AML, karyotype, cytogenetic aberrations, gene mutation, prognosis.

Received: January 23, 2016

Accepted: April 4, 2016

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