Prognostic Value of Genetic Mutations in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Results of a Cooperative Study of Hematology Clinics of Saint Petersburg (Russia) and Charite Clinic (Germany)

EV Motyko1, OV Blau2, LB Polushkina1, LS Martynenko1, MP Bakai1, NYu Tsybakova1, YuS Ruzhenkova1, EV Kleina1, NB Pavlenko1, AM Radzhabova1, EV Karyagina3, OS Uspenskaya4, SV Voloshin1, AV Chechetkin1, IS Martynkevich1

1 Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024

2 Charite Clinic, Berlin Medical University, 30 Hindenburgdamm, Berlin, Germany, 12200

3 Municipal Hospital No. 15, 4 Avangardnaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 198205

4 Leningrad Regional Clinical Hospital, 45–49 Lunacharskogo pr-t, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 194291

For correspondence: Ekaterina Vadimovna Motyko, PhD in Biology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024; Tel.: +7(812)925-05-62; e-mail:

For citation: Motyko EV, Blau OV, Polushkina LB, et al. Prognostic Value of Genetic Mutations in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Results of a Cooperative Study of Hematology Clinics of Saint Petersburg (Russia) and Charite Clinic (Germany). Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(2):211–9.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-2-211-219


Aim. To analyze the effect on prognosis of mutations that are typical of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.

Materials & Methods. The study included 620 AML patients surveyed at Hematology Clinics of Saint Petersburg (Russia) and Charite Clinic (Berlin, Germany). G-banding of chromosomes was employed for cytogenetic testing. Aberration screening in DNMT3A, IDH1/2 genes was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with subsequent analysis of melting and sequencing profiles. Mutations in FLT3, NPM1 genes were revealed by PCR.

Results. Mutations were identified in 343 (55.3 %) out of 620 patients. Significantly more often mutations were discovered in patients with normal karyotype (NK) (= 0.001). FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with reduced medians of overall survival (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival: 11.3 vs. 15.8 months with FLT3-ITD– (= 0.005) and 10.0 vs. 13.3 months with FLT3-ITD+ (= 0.009), respectively. The relation of FLT3-ITD allele burden to OS duration was also assessed. In the ITDlow/ITD– group the OS median was considerably longer than in the ITDhigh group (= 0.028). In the group of patients with 1 mutation in NPM1 gene OS and DFS were much better in comparison with other patients (medians of 27.4 and 13.9 months, respectively, = 0.040; 19.3 and 12.0 months, = 0.049). Negative impact of mutations in DNMT3A gene was noticed while assessing OS median: 12 (DNMT3A+) and 15 months (DNMT3A–), respectively (= 0.112). Mutations in IDH1 gene correlated with a better OS than in the group without mutations (= 0.092). The rs11554137 polymorphism in IDH1 gene was associated with worse OS in the group of patients with NK (= 0.186). In 144 patients various mutation combinations (from 2 to 5) were identified. It was demonstrated that mutations in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), NPM1, DNMT3A, and IDH2 were identified significantly more often in combinations with other mutations (= 0.001): NPM1+/FLT3-ITD+ (20.8 %), NPM1+/FLT3-ITD+/DNMT3A+ (8.3 %), and FLT3-ITD+/DNMT3A+ (8.3 %). Patients with 1 mutation had a noticeably longer OS median compared with patients with 2 mutations (18.1 and 12.2 months; = 0.003). In patients with NPM1+ according to their OS the most unfavorable additional mutation was FLT3-ITD (median 27.4 vs. 9.2 months; = 0.019) and the combination of NPM1+/FLT3-ITD+/DNMT3A+ (median 27.4 vs. 14.6 months; = 0.141). OS of patients with DNMT3A+ showed a downward trend if FLT3-ITD additional mutation was identified (17.3 vs. 7.1 months; = 0.074).

Conclusion. Mutations in FLT3, DNMT3A, IDH1/2, NPM1 genes frequently occur in AML intermediate-risk patients, i.e. they determine the intermediate prognosis group in AML. The studied mutations considerably impact prognosis. It is important to take into consideration mutation type, its allele burden, and the presence of additional mutations. A patient with 2 mutations has a considerably worse OS compared with a patient with 1 mutation. The studied group of patients with the combination of NPM1+/FLT3-ITD+, NPM1+/FLT3-ITD+/DNMT3A+, DNMT3A+/FLT3-ITD+ mutations has the poorest prognosis. Comprehensive analysis of genetic damages in AML patients allows to most accurately predict the course and prognosis of the disease and to plan targeted therapy.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemias, mutations in FLT3, NPM1, DNMT3A, IDH1/2 genes, karyotype, prognosis.

Received: July 13, 2018

Accepted: January 16, 2019

Read in PDF 


  1. Schlenk RF, Dohner H. Genomic applications in the clinic: use in treatment paradigm of acute myeloid leukemia. Hematol Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013;2013(1):324–30. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.324.

  2. Sanders MA, Valk PJ. The evolving molecular genetic landscape in acute myeloid leukaemia. Curr Opin Hematol. 2013;20(2):79–85. doi: 10.1097/MOH.0b013e32835d821c.

  3. Preisler H, Davis RB, Kirshner J, et al. Comparison of three remission induction regimens and two postinduction strategies for the treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: a cancer and leukemic group B study. Blood. 1987;69(5):1441–9.

  4. Wiernik PH, Banks PLC, Case DC, et al. Cytarabine plus idarubicin or daunorubicin as induction and consolidation therapy for previously untreated adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. 1992;79(2):313–9.

  5. Алгоритмы диагностики и протоколы лечения заболеваний системы крови. Под ред. В.Г. Савченко. М.: Практика, 2018. Т. 1. 1008 с.

    [Savchenko VG, ed. Algoritmy diagnostiki i protokoly lecheniya zabolevanii sistemy krovi. (Diagnostic algorithms and treatment protocols for blood system diseases.) Moscow: Praktika Publ.; 2018. Vol. 1. 1008 p. (In Russ)]

  6. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group. Br J Haematol. 1976;33(4):451–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1976.tb03563.x.

  7. Heim S, Mitelman F. Cancer Cytogenetics: chromosomal and molecular genetic aberrations of tumor cells. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: 2015. рр. 632. doi: 10.1002/9781118795569.

  8. Jordan CT. Unique molecular and cellular features of acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells. 2002;16(4):559–62. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2402446.

  9. Ding L, Ley TJ, Larson DE, et al. Clonal evolution in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia revealed by whole-genome sequencing. Nature. 2012;481(7382):506– doi: 10.1038/nature10738.

  10. Gerlinger M, Rowan AJ, Horswell S, et al. Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(10):883–92. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1113205.

  11. Campbell PJ, Pleasance ED, Stephens PJ, et al. Subclonal phylogenetic structures in cancer revealed by ultra-deep sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(35):13081–6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801523105.

  12. Kottaridis PD, Gale RE, Frew ME, et al. The presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adds important prognostic information to cytogenetic risk group and response to the first cycle of chemotherapy: analysis of 854 patients from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML 10 and 12 trials. Blood. 2001;98(6):1752– doi: 10.1182/blood.v98.6.1752.

  13. Santos FP, Jones D, Qiao W, et al. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations among different cytogenetic subgroups in acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer. 2011;117(10):2145–55. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25670.

  14. Sallman DA, Lancet JE. What are the most promising new agents in acute myeloid leukemia? Curr Opin Hematol. 2017;24(2):99–107. doi: 10.1097/MOH.0000000000000319.

  15. Thiede C, Koch S, Creutzig E, et al. Prevalence and prognostic impact of NPM1 mutations in 1485 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2006;107(10):4011–20. doi: 10.1182/blood-2005-08-3167.

  16. Dohner K, Schlenk RF, Habdank M, et al. Mutant nucleophosmin (NPM1) predicts favorable prognosis in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: interaction with other gene mutations. Blood. 2005;106(12):3740–6. doi: 10.1182/blood-2005-05-2164.

  17. Тилова Л.Р., Савинкова А.В., Жидкова Е.М. и др. Молекулярно-генетические нарушения в патогенезе опухолей системы крови и соответствующие им изменения сигнальных систем клетки. Клиническая онкогематология. 2017;10(2):235– doi: 10.21320/2500-2139-2017-10-2-235-249.

    [Tilova LR, Savinkova AV, Zhidkova EM, et al. Molecular Genetic Abnormalities in the Pathogenesis of Hematologic Malignancies and Corresponding Changes in Cell Signaling Systems. Clinical oncohematology. 2017;10(2):235–49. doi: 10.21320/2500-2139-2017-10-2-235-249. (In Russ)]

  18. Emadi A, Faramand R, Carter-Cooper B, et al. Presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations may predict acute myeloid leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2015;90(5):E77–9. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23965.

  19. Patel JP, Gonen M, Figueroa ME, et al. Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(12):1079–89. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112304.

  20. Renneville A, Boissel N, Nibourel O, et al. Prognostic significance of DNA methyltransferase 3A mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a study by the Acute Leukemia French Association. Leukemia. 2012;26(6):1247–54. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.382.

  21. Marcucci G, Maharry K, Wu Y-Z, et al. IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations identify novel molecular subsets within de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(14):2348–55. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.3730.

  22. Paschka P, Schlenk RF, Gaidzik VI, et al. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and confer adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation without FLT3 internal tandem duplication. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(22):3636–43. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.3762.

  23. Abbas S, Lugthart S, Kavelaars FG, et al. Acquired mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 both are recurrent aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence and prognostic value. Blood. 2010;116(12):2122–6. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-11-250878.

  24. Thol F, Damm F, Ludeking A, et al. Incidence and prognostic influence of DNMT3A mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(21):2889– doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.35.4894.

  25. Ley TJ, Miller C, Ding L, Raphael BJ, et al. Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(22):2059– doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301689.

  26. Kihara R, Nagata Y, Kiyoi H, et al. Comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations and their prognostic impacts in adult acute myeloid leukemia patients. Leukemia. 2014;28(8):1586– doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.55.

  27. Ravandi F, Kantarjian H, Faderl S, et al. Outcome of patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Leuk Res. 2010;34(6):752– doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2009.10.001.

  28. Frohling S, Schlenk RF, Breitruck J, et al. Prognostic significance of activating FLT3 mutations in younger adults (16 to 60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: A study of the AML study group Ulm. Blood. 2002;100(13):4372– doi: 10.1182/blood-2002-05-1440.

  29. Schlenk RF, Kayser S, Bullinger L, et al. Differential impact of allelic ratio and insertion site in FLT3-ITD–positive AML with respect to allogeneic transplantation. Blood. 2014;124(23):3441– doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-05-578070.

  30. Kim Y, Lee GD, Park J, et al. Quantitative fragment analysis of FLT3-ITD efficiently identifying poor prognostic group with high mutant allele burden or long ITD length. Blood Cancer J. 2015;5(8):e336. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2015.61.

  31. Linch DC, Hills RK, Burnett AK, et al. Impact of FLT3ITD mutant allele level on relapse risk in intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2014;124(2):273– doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-02-554667.

  32. Brunet S, Labopin M, Esteve J, et al. Impact of FLT3 internal tandem duplication on the outcome of related and unrelated hematopoietic transplantation for adult acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(7):735– doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.36.9868.

  33. DeZern AE, Sung A, Kim S, et al. Role of allogeneic transplantation for FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia: outcomes from 133 consecutive newly diagnosed patients from a single institution. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17(9):1404– doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.02.003.

  34. Islam M, Mohamed Z, Assenov Y. Differential analysis of genetic, epigenetic, and cytogenetic abnormalities in AML. Int J Genom. 2017;2017:2913648. doi: 10.1155/2017/2913648.

  35. Papaemmanuil E, Gerstung M, Bullinger L, et al. Genomic classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(9):900– doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1608739.

  36. Dohner H, Estey E, Amadori S, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adults: Recommendations from an International Expert Panel, on Behalf of the European LeukemiaNet. Blood. 2010;115(3):453– doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-07-235358.

  37. Gale RE, Green C, Allen C, et al. The impact of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutant level, number, size, and interaction with NPM1 mutations in a large cohort of young adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2008;111(5):2776– doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-08-109090.

  38. Pratcorona M, Brunet S, Nomdedeu J, et al. Favorable outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia harboring a low-allelic burden FLT3-ITD mutation and concomitant NPM1 mutation: Relevance to post-remission therapy. Blood. 2013;121(14):2734– doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-06-431122.

  39. Stone RM, Mandrekar S, Sanford BL, et al. The Multi-Kinase Inhibitor Midostaurin (M) Prolongs Survival Compared with Placebo (P) in Combination with Daunorubicin (D)/Cytarabine (C) Induction (ind), High-Dose C Consolidation (consol), and As Maintenance (maint) Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients (pts) Age 18–60 with FLT3 Mutations (muts): An International Prospective Randomized (rand) P-Controlled Double- Blind Trial (CALGB 10603/RATIFY [Alliance]). Blood. 2015;126(23): 6, abstract.

  40. Ibrahem L, Mahfouz R, Elhelw L, et al. Prognostic significance of DNMT3A mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2015;54(1):84– doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.07.015.

  41. Ley T, Ding L, Walter M, et al. DNMT3A mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(25):2424– doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1005143.

  42. Willander K, Falk I, Chaireti R, et al. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 gene and IDH1 SNP 105C>T have a prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia. Biomark Res. 2014;2(1):18. doi: 10.1186/2050-7771-2-18.

  43. Xu Q, Li Y, Lv N, et al. Correlation between isocitrate dehydrogenase gene aberrations and prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23(15):4511– doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2628.

  44. Wagner K, Damm F, Gohring G, et al. Impact of IDH1 R132 mutations and an IDH1 single nucleotide polymorphism in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: SNP rs11554137 is an adverse prognostic factor. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(14):2356– doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.6899.

  45. Stein EM, Tallman MS. Emerging therapeutic drugs for AML. Blood. 2016;127(1):71– doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-07-604538.

  46. Ploen GG, Nederby L, Guldberg P, et al. Persistence of DNMT3A mutations at long-term remission in adult patients with AML. Br J Haematol. 2014;167(4):478– doi: 10.1111/bjh.13062.

  47. Gaidzik V, Weber D, Paschka P, et al. Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) of DNMT3A mutations (DNMT3Amut) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a study of the AML Study Group (AMLSG). Blood. 2015;126(23):226, abstract.

Hypomethylating Agents in Oncohematology

AD Shirin, OYu Baranova

NN Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478

For correspondence: Anton Dmitrievich Shirin, PhD, 24 Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, Russian Federation, 115478; Tel.: +7(499)324-28-24; e-mail:

For citation: Shirin AD, Baranova OYu. Hypomethylating Agents in Oncohematology. Clinical oncohematology. 2016;9(4):369–82 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-4-369-382


The review describes epigenetic processes, including methylation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, as well as RNA. It dwells on mechanisms of demethylation and corresponding medicinal products. It presents detailed information on results of numerous large randomized studies intended to evaluate hypomethylating agents (azanucleosides). Special attention is paid to outcomes of azanucleoside therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemias. The article describes several prognostic systems and treatment algorithms for myelodysplastic syndromes. Two azanucleosides have been approved in Russia to date: azacitidine (for SQ administration) and decitabine (for IV administration). International authors analyze the experience in oral and subcutaneous administration of decitabine. However, the problem of off-label use of hypomethylating agents is still open. The review gives a brief description of ongoing clinical trials with azanucleosides.

Keywords: epigenetics, acute myeloid leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, azacitidine, decitabine, hypomethylating agents, azanucleosides.

Received: May 10, 2016

Accepted: May 20, 2016

Read in PDF (RUS)pdficon


  1. Уоддингтон К.Х. Основные биологические концепции. В кн.: На пути к теоретической биологии. Часть I. Пролегомены. М.: Мир, 1970. С. 11–38. [Waddington CH. Basic Ideas of Biology. In: Waddington CH, ed. Towards a Theoretical Biology. Vol. 1. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 1968–72. (Russ. ed.: Waddington CH. Osnovnye biologicheskie kontseptsii. In: Waddington CH, ed. Na puti k teoreticheskoi biologii. Chast’ I. Prolegomeny. Moscow: Mir Publ.; 1970. pp. 11–38.)]
  2. Huntly BJP, Johnson PWM. Targeting Epigenetic Readers in Hematologic Malignancies: A Good BET? The Hematologist. 2012;9(2):5–7.
  3. Daser A, Rabbitts TH. Extending the repertoire of the mixed-lineage leukemia gene MLL in leukemogenesis. Genes & Dev. 2004;18:965–74. doi: 10.1101/gad.1195504.
  4. Ansorge WJ. Next-generation DNA sequencing techniques. New Biotechnol. 2009;25(4):195–203. doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2008.12.009.
  5. Foley SB, Rios JJ, Mgbemena V. Use of Whole Genome Sequencing for Diagnosis and Discovery in the Cancer Genetics Clinic. EBioMedicine. 2014;2(1):74–81. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2014.12.003.
  6. Wojdacz TK, Moller TH, Thestrup BB, et al. Limitations and advantages of MS-HRM and bisulfite sequencing for single locus methylation studies. Exp Rev Mol Diagn. 2010;10(5):575–80. doi: 10.1586/erm.10.46.
  7. Reinders J, Paszkowski J. Bisulfite methylation profiling of large genomes. Epigenomics. 2010;2(2):209–20. doi: 10.2217/epi.10.6.
  8. Thompson CB. Targeting Metabolic Inputs into Epigenetic Regulations of Acute Leukemia. Blood. 2013;122(21):SCI-26.
  9. Зиновкина Л.А., Зиновкин Р.А. Метилирование ДНК, митохондрии и программируемое старение. Биохимия. 2015;80(12):1830–7. [Zinovkina LA, Zinovkin RA. DNA methylation, mitochondria, and programmed aging. Biokhimiya. 2015;80(12):1830–7. (In Russ)]
  10. Vanyushin BF, Kiryanov GI, Kudryashova IB, Belozersky AN. DNA & methylase in loach embryos (Misgurnus fossilis). FEBS Lett. 1971;15(4):313–6. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(71)80646-4.
  11. Vanyushin BF, Kirnos MD. The nucleotide composition and pyrimidine clusters in DNA from beef heart mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 1974;39(2):195–9. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(74)80049-99.
  12. Vanyushin BF, Kirnos MD. The structure of animal mitochondrial DNA (base composition, pyrimidine clusters, character of methylation). Mol Cell Biochem. 1977;14(1–3):31–6. doi: 10.1007/bf01734162.
  13. Byun HM, Panni T, Motta V, et al. Effects of airborne pollutants on mitochondrial DNA methylation. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10(1):18. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-10-18.
  14. Sun C, Reimers LL, Burk RD. Methylation of HPV16 genome CpG sites is associated with cervix precancer and cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121(1):59–63. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.01.013.
  15. Vanyushin BF, Nemirovsky LE, Klimenko VV, et al. The 5-methylcytosine in DNA of rats. Gerontologia. 1973;19(3):138–52. doi: 10.1159/000211967.
  16. Биология и медицина. Метилирование РНК. [Электронный документ] Доступно по: Ссылка активна на 14.05.2013. [Biologiya i meditsina. Metilirovanie RNK. (Biology and Medicine. RNA Methylation) [Internet]. Available from: (accessed 14.05.2013) (In Russ)]
  17. Yu B, Yang Z, Li J, et al. Methylation as a crucial step in plant microRNA biogenesis. Science. 2005;307(5711):932–5. doi: 10.1126/science.1107130.
  18. Goll MG, Kirpekar E, Maggert KA, et al. Methylation of tRNAAsp by the DNA methyltransferase homolog Dnmt2. Science. 2006;311(5759):395–8. doi: 10.1126/science.1120976.
  19. Dominissini D, Nachtergaele S, Moshitch-Moshkovitz S, et al. The dynamic N1-methyladenosine methylome in eukaryotic messenger RNA. Nature. 2016;530(7591):441–6. doi: 10.1038/nature16998.
  20. Christman J. 5-Azacytidine and 5-aza-2¢-deoxycytidine as inhibitors of DNA methylation: mechanistic studies and their implications for cancer therapy. Oncogene. 2002;21(35):5483–95. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1205699.
  21. Kumar A, List A. F, Hozo I, et al. Decitabine versus 5-azacitidine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome: adjusted indirect meta-analysis. Haematologica. 2010;95(2):340–2. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2009.017764.
  22. Phase II Decitabine (DAC) Versus Azacitidine (AZA) in Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). [Internet] Available from: (accessed 15.05.2016).
  23. Fenaux P, Gattermann N, Seymour JF, et al. Prolonged survival with improved tolerability in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: azacitidine compared with low dose ara-C. Br J Haematol. 2010;149(2):244–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08082.x.
  24. Al-Ali HK, Jaekel N, Niederwieser D. The role of hypomethylating agents in the treatment of elderly patients with AML. J Geriatr Oncol. 2014;5(1):89–105. doi: 10.1016/j.jgo.2013.08.004.
  25. Burnett AK, Milligan D, Prentice AG, et al. A comparison of low-dose cytarabine and hydroxyurea with or without all-trans retinoic acid for acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome in patients not considered fit for intensive treatment. Cancer. 2007;109(6):1114–24. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22496.
  26. Kantarjian HM, Thomas XG, Dmoszynska A, et al. Multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III trial of decitabine versus patient choice, with physician advice, of either supportive care or low-dose cytarabine for the treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(21):2670–7. doi: 10.1200/jco.2011.38.9429.
  27. European Medicines Agency: assessment report on Dacogen 19 July 2012. [Internet] Available from: (accessed 17.05.2016).
  28. Minutes for the February 9 2012 meeting of the FDA Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. [Internet] Available from: (accessed 19.05.2016).
  29. Greenberg PL, Tuechler H, Schanz J, et al. Revised international prognostic scoring system for myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2012;120(12):2454–65. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-03-420489.
  30. Schanz J, Tuchler H, Sole F, et al. New comprehensive cytogenetic scoring system for primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia after MDS derived from an international database merge. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(8):820–9. doi: 10.1200/jco.2011.35.6394.
  31. Kantarjian H, O’Brien S, Ravandi F, et al. Proposal for a new risk model in myelodysplastic syndrome that accounts for events not considered in the original International Prognostic Scoring System. Cancer. 2008;113(6):1351–61. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23697.
  32. Garcia-Manero G. Myelodysplastic syndromes: 2015 Update on diagnosis, risk-stratification and management. Am J Hematol. 2015;90(9):831–41. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24102.
  33. Garcia-Manero G, Fenaux P. Hypomethylating agents and other novel strategies in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(10):516–23. doi: 10.1200/jco.2010.31.0854.
  34. Lyons RM, Cosgriff TM, Modi SS, et al. Hematologic response to three alternative dosing schedules of azacitidine in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(11):1850–6. doi: 10.1200/jco.2008.17.1058.
  35. Garcia-Manero G, Gore SD, Cogle C, et al. Phase I study of oral azacitidine in myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(18):2521–7. doi: 10.1200/jco.2010.34.4226.
  36. Garcia-Manero G, Jabbour E, Borthakur G, et al. Randomized open-label phase II study of decitabine in patients with low- or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(20):2548–53. doi: 10.1200/jco.2012.44.6823.
  37. Wei Y, Dimicoli S, Bueso-Ramos C, et al. Toll-like receptor alterations in myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia. 2013;27(9):1832–40. doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.180.
  38. Fenaux P, Mufti GJ, Hellstrom-Lindberg E, et al. Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: A randomised, open-label, phase III study. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(3):223–32. doi: 10.1016/s1470-2045(09)70003-8.
  39. Blum W, Garzon R, Klisovic RB, et al. Clinical response and miR-29b predictive significance in older AML patients treated with a 10-day schedule of decitabine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107(16):7473–8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002650107.
  40. Itzykson R, Thepot S, Quesnel B, et al. Prognostic factors for response and overall survival in 282 patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azacitidine. Blood. 2011;117(2):403–11. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-06-289280.
  41. Jabbour E, Garcia-Manero G, Batty N, et al. Outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after failure of decitabine therapy. Cancer. 2010;116(16):3830–4. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25247.
  42. Montalban-Bravo G, Garcia-Manero G. Novel drugs for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2015;29(4):760–9. doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.244.
  43. Dombret H, Seymour JF, Butrym A, et al. International phase 3 study of azacitidine vs conventional care regimens in older patients with newly diagnosed AML with > 30% blasts. Blood. 2015;126(3):291–9. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-01-621664.
  44. Pleyer L, Burgstaller S, Girschikofsky M, et al. Azacitidine in 302 patients with WHO-defined acute myeloid leukemia: results from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT-Study Group. Ann Hematol. 2014;93(11):1825–38. doi: 10.1007/s00277-014-2126-9.
  45. Radujkovic A, Dietrich S, Bochtler T, et al. Azacitidine and low-dose cytarabine in palliative patients with acute myeloid leukemia and high bone marrow blast counts – a retrospective single-center experience. Eur J Haematol. 2014;93(2):112–7. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12308.
  46. Field T, Perkins J, Huang Y, et al. 5-Azacitidine for myelodysplasia before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010;45(2):255–60. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.134.
  47. Gerds AT, Gooley TA, Estey EH, et al. Pretransplantation Therapy with Azacitidine vs Induction Chemotherapy and Posttransplantation Outcome in Patients with MDS. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012;18(8):1211–8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.01.009.
  48. Damaj G, Duhamel A, Robin M, et al. Impact of azacitidine before allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: a study by the Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle et de Therapie-Cellulaire and the Groupe-Francophone des Myelodysplasies. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(36):4533–40. doi: 10.1200/jco.2012.44.3499.
  49. de Lima M, Giralt S, Thall PF, et al. Maintenance therapy with low-dose azacitidine after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent acute myelogeneous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a dose and schedule finding study. Cancer. 2010;116(23):5420–31. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25500.
  50. Jabbour E, Giralt S, Kantarjian H, et al. Low-dose azacitidine after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Cancer. 2009;115(9):1899–905. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24198.
  51. Schroeder T, Czibere A, Platzbecker U, et al. Azacitidine and donor lymphocyte infusions as first salvage therapy for relapse of AML or MDS after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Leukemia. 2013 27(6), 1229–35. doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.7.
  52. Lubbert M, Bertz H, Wasch R, et al. Efficacy of a 3-day, low-dose treatment with 5-azacytidine followed by donor lymphocyte infusions in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia relapsed after allografting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010;45:627–32. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.222.
  53. Sanchez-Abarca LI, Gutierrez-Cosio S, Santamaria C, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC): potential role in the transplantation setting. Blood. 2010;115(1):107–21. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-03-210393.
  54. Goodyear О, Agathanggelou A, Novitzky-Basso, et al. Induction of a CD8+ T-cell response to the MAGE cancer testis antigen by combined treatment with azacitidine and sodium valproate in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia. Blood. 2010;116(11):1908–18. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-11-249474.
  55. Atanackovich D, Luetkens T, Kloth B, et al. Cancer-testis antigen expression and its epigenetic modulation in acute myeloid leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2011;86(11):918–22. doi: 10.1002/ajh.22141.
  56. Kroger N, Bacher U, Bader P, et al. NCI first international workshop on the biology, prevention, and treatment of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the committee on disease-specific methods and strategies for monitoring relapse following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: II. Chronic leukemias, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and lymphoid malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16(10):1325–46. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.06.008.
  57. Platzbecker U, Wermke M, Radke J, et al. Azacitidine for treatment of imminent relapse in MDS or AML patients after allogeneic HSCT: results of the RELAZA trial. Leukemia. 2012;26(3):381–9. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.234.
  58. Sockel K, Wermke M, Radke J, et al. Minimal Residual Disease-Directed Preemptive Treatment With Azacitidine In Patients With NPM1-Mutant Acute Myeloid Leukemia And Molecular Relapse. Haematologica. 2011;96(10):1568–70. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2011.044388.
  59. The MDS Foundation. New MDS Clinical Trials. [Internet] Available from: (accessed 17.05.2016).

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Prognostic Significance of Complex Karyotype Including del(5q), –7, del(7q) Abnormalities

TL Gindina, NN Mamaev, SN Bondarenko, ES Nikolaeva, IA Petrova, OA Slesarchuk, AS Borovkova, SV Razumova, AL Alyanskii, LS Zubarovskaya, BV Afanas’ev

R.M. Gorbacheva Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Hematology and Transplantation; Academician I.P. Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022

For correspondence: Tat’yana Leonidovna Gindina, PhD, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022; Tel.: +7(812)233-12-43; e-mail:

For citation: Gindina TL, Mamaev NN, Bondarenko SN, et al. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Prognostic Significance of Complex Karyotype Including del(5q), –7, del(7q) Abnormalities. Clinical oncohematology. 2016;9(3):271-78(In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2016-9-3-271-278


Aim. To evaluate the prognostic significance of the complex karyotype including del(5q), –7, del(7q) abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).

Materials & Methods. Forty-four AML patients with chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities (22 women and 22 men, aged from 1.2 to 67 years, median 31.2 years) were examined. Analysis of overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) predictors after allo-HSCT in patients with different clinical, transplant and cytogenetic characteristics was performed.

Results. Prior to allo-HSCT, the complex karyotype (with three or more chromosomal abnormalities) was observed in 19 (43 %) patients, the monosomal karyotype was in 8 (18 %) patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that OS and EFS differed in patients from different age groups (³ 18 vs. < 18 years; = 0.01 and = 0.05, respectively), with different disease status at transplantation (1 remission vs. other clinical status; = 0.1 and = 0.008, respectively), with and without complex karyotype (СK– vs. CK+; = 0.05 and = 0.002, respectively), with and without monosomal karyotype (МK– vs. MK+; = 0.009, only for EFS), and with different stem cells source (bone marrow vs. other source; = 0.03 only for OS). Multivariate analysis confirmed that age of 18 years and more (= 0.02 and = 0.01, respectively), active disease at allo-HSCT (= 0.04 and = 0.005, respectively), complex karyotype (= 0.04 и = 0.0008, respectively) and stem cell source other than bone marrow (= 0.02 only for OS) were independent predictors of OS and EFS deterioration.

Conclusion. The study demonstrates that chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities as a part of the complex karyotype is high-risk factor in AML patients undergoing allo-HSCT (unlike the monosomal karyotype), that requires the special therapeutic approach.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemias, complex karyotype, chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, prognosis.

Received: March 5, 2016

Accepted: April 5, 2016

Read in PDF (RUS)pdficon


  1. Dohner H, Estey EH, Amadori S, et al. Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in adults: recommendations from an international expert panel, on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet. Blood. 2010;115(3):453–74. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-07-
  2. Breems DA, Van Putten WL, De Greef GE, et al. Monosomal karyotype in acute myeloid leukemia: a better indicator of poor prognosis than a complex karyotype. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(29);4791–7. doi: 10.1200/jco.2008.16.0259.
  3. Medeiros BC, Othus M, Fang M, et al. Prognostic impact of monosomal karyotype in young adult and elderly acute myeloid leukemia: the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) experience. Blood. 2012;116(13):2224–8. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-02-
  4. Fang M, Storer B, Estey E, et al. Outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia with monosomal karyotype who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2011;118(6):1490–4. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-02-
  5. Lazarus HM, Litzow MR. AML cytogenetics: the complex just got simpler. Blood. 2012;120(12):2357–8. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-08-
  6. Kayzer S, Zucknick M, Dohner K, et al. Monosomal karyotype in adult acute myeloid leukemia: prognostic impact and outcome after different treatment strategies. Blood. 2011;119(2):551–8. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-07-
  7. Voutiadou G, Papaioannou G, Gaitatzi M, et al. Monosomal karyotype in acute myeloid leukemia defines a distinct subgroup within the adverse cytogenetic risk category. Cancer Genet. 2013;206(1–2):32–6. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2012.10.003.
  8. Guo RJ, Atenafu EG, Craddock K, et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation may alleviate the negative prognostic impact of monosomal and complex karyotypes on patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20(5):690–5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.01.027.
  9. Cornelissen JJ, Breems D, Putten WLJ, et al. Comparative analysis of the value of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia with monosomal karyotype versus other cytogenetic risk categories. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(17):2140–6. doi: 10.1200/jco.2011.39.6499.
  10. Hemmati P, Schuzle-Luckow A, Terwey T, et al. Cytogenetic risk grouping by the monosomal karyotype classification is superior in predicting the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in complete remission. Eur J Haematol. 2013;92(2):102–10. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12216.
  11. Гиндина Т.Л., Мамаев Н.Н., Бархатов И.М. и др. Сложные повреждения хромосом у больных с рецидивами острых лейкозов после аллогенной трансплантации гемопоэтических стволовых клеток. Терапевтический архив. 2012;84(8):61–6. [Gindina TL, Mamaev NN, Barhatov IM, et al. Complex chromosome damages in patients with recurrent acute leukemias after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2012;84(8):61–6. (In Russ)]
  12. Schaffer L, McGovan-Jordan J, Schmid M. ISCN. An international System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Basel: S. Karger; 2013. pp. 140.
  13. Wawrzyniak E, Wierzbowska A, Kotkowska A, et al. Different prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia harboring monosomal karyotype with total or partial monosomies determined by FISH: Retrospective PALG study. Leuk Res. 2013;37(3):293–9. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2012.10.022.
  14. Yoon JH, Kim HJ, Shin SH, et al. Stratification of de novo adult acute myelogenous leukemia with adverse-risk karyotype: can we overcome the worse prognosis of adverse-risk group acute myelogenous leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20(1):80–8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.10.015.

Diagnostic Value of C-Reactive Protein as Marker of Infections in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemias

L.N. Tarasova1, S.G. Vladimirova1, V.V. Cherepanova2

1 Kirov Scientific Research Institute for Hematology and Blood Transfusion under the Federal Medico-Biological Agency of Russia, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027

2 Municipal Hospital No. 33, 54 pr-t Lenina, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation, 603122

For correspondence: Lyudmila Nikolaevna Tarasova, DSci, Professor, 72 Krasnoarmeiskaya str., Kirov, Russian Federation, 610027; Tel.: +7(8332)67-57-00; e-mail:

For citation: Tarasova LN, Vladimirova SG, Cherepanova VV. Diagnostic Value of C-Reactive Protein as Marker of Infections in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemias. Clinical oncohematology. 2015;8(4):442–446 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2015-8-4-442-446


Aim. To determine diagnostically relevant C-protein levels (CRP) as an early infection marker in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AML), to evaluate the dependence of CRP concentrations on the WBC count and leukemic blast cells in the peripheral blood.

Methods. CRP was tested in 39 patients with de novo AML (17 males and 22 females) at the age of 20 to 76 years (median age is 49). AML types according to the FAB grading were as follows: М0 — 2, М1 — 4, М2 — 23, М4 — 8, and М5 — 2 patients.

Results. CRP concentrations in patients without symptoms of an infection (n = 16) were within the range from 0 to 43 mg/l (median 5.5 mg/l). The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the CRP level and WBC and blast cell counts were 0.664 (= 0.006) and 0.473 (= 0.062), respectively. The obtained data confirm activation of CRP synthesis in case of leukemia. In patients with an infection and/or fever (n = 23), CRP levels were significantly higher than those in patients without an infection: 8–383 mg/l (median 81 mg/l). No correlation between the CRP level and WBC and blast cell counts was found. Therefore, the CRP synthesis during the onset of AML is significantly increased as a response to the infection. In groups of patients with and without infections, 95% CI were equal to 0–40 mg/l and 12–315 mg/l, respectively. Since they overlap within the range from 12 to 40 mg/l, they may be considered a «grey zone». The CRP concentrations within this range suggest infection. CRP levels lower than 12 mg/l or higher than 40 mg/l with a high degree of probability confirm either absence or presence of infectious complications, respectively.

Conclusion. Therefore, CRP is an accessible and informative marker of infection in patients with AML during the onset of the disease. Monitoring of its levels permits to start a timely antimicrobial therapy; at that, the efficacy of the therapy can be assessed based on the dynamics of this parameter.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemias, infectious complications, acute-phase proteins, C-reactive protein, blast cells, white blood cells.

Received: April 20, 2015

Accepted: October 22, 2015

Read in PDF (RUS)pdficon


  1. Абдулкадыров К.М., Чуданова Т.В. Диагностика и лечение бактериальных и микотических инфекций у больных гемобластозами. Вестник гематологии. 2005;1(3):5–13. [Abdulkadyrov KM, Chudanova TV. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial and mycotic infections in patients with hemoblastoses. Vestnik gematologii. 2005;1(3):5–13. (In Russ)]
  2. Галстян Г.М., Городецкий В.М., Шулутко Е.М. и др. Полиорганная патология при септическом шоке у больных с гемобластозами. Анестезиология и реаниматология. 2000;2:36–40. [Galstyan GM, Gorodetskii VM, Shulutko EM, et al. Multiple organ impairment associated with septic shock in patients with hemoblastoses. Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya. 2000;2:36–40. (In Russ)]
  3. Черепанова В.В., Перевалова Н.Н., Тарасова Л.Н. и др. Нарушения гемостаза у больных острым миелобластным лейкозом в процессе полихимиотерапии. Гематология и трансфузиология. 2004;49(5):27–33. [Cherepanova VV, Perevalova NN, Tarasova LN, et al. Impairment of hemostasis in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia during polychemotherapy. Gematologiya i transfuziologiya. 2004;49(5):27–33. (In Russ)]
  4. Паровичникова Е.Н., Савченко В.Г., Исаев В.Г. и др. Итоги многоцентрового рандомизированного исследования по лечению острых миелоидных лейкозов взрослых. Терапевтический архив. 2007;79(7):14–9. [Parovichnikova EN, Savchenko VG, Isaev VG, et al. Results of multicenter, randomized study to treat acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2007;79(7):14–9. (In Russ)]
  5. Птушкин В.В., Багирова Н.С. Инфекционные осложнения у больных с онкогематологическими заболеваниями. В кн.: Клиническая онкогематология: руководство для врачей. Под ред. М.А. Волковой. М.: Медицина, 2001. С. 507–28. [Ptushkin VV, Bagirova NS. Infectious complications in patients with oncohematological malignancies. In: Volkova MA, ed. Klinicheskaya onkogematologiya: rukovodstvo dlya vrachei. (Clinical oncohematology: manual for physicians.) Moscow: Meditsina Publ.; 2001. p. 507–28. (In Russ)]
  6. Альес В.Ф., Миронов П.И., Шадчнев А.П. Этиология, эпидемиология и классификация сепсиса у детей. Анестезиология и реаниматология. 2002;1:63–6. [Al’es VF, Mironov PI, Shadchnev AP. Etiology, epidemiology, and classification of sepsis in children. Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya. 2002;1:63–6. (In Russ)]
  7. Levy MN, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(4):1250–6. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000050454.01978.3b.
  8. Белобородова Н.В., Попов Д.А. Диагностическая ценность некоторых маркеров инфекции в раннем послеоперационном периоде у кардиохирургических больных. Анестезиология и реаниматология. 2005;3:45–9. [Beloborodova NV, Popov DA. Diagnostic value of several infection markers during early postoperation period in cardiosurgical patients. Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya. 2005;3:45–9. (In Russ)]
  9. Миронов И.П., Цыденжапов Е.Ц., Михельсон В.А. Эволюция терминологии сепсиса у детей в последнее десятилетие. Анестезиология и реаниматология. 2006;1:69–73. [Mironov IP, Tsydenzhapov ETs, Mikhel’son VA. Evolution of sepsis terminology in children over last decade. Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya. 2006;1:69–73. (In Russ)]
  10. Abraham E, Matthay MF, Dinarello CA. Consensus Conference Definitions For Sepsis, Septic Shock, Acute Lung Injury And Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Time For A Reevaluation. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(1):232–5. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200001000-00039.
  11. Титов В.Н., Близнюков О.П. С-реактивный белок: физико-химические свойства, методы определения и диагностическое значение. Клиническая лабораторная диагностика. 2004;4:3–9. [Titov VN, Bliznyukov OP. C-reactive protein: physico-chemical properties, test methods and diagnostic value. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika. 2004;4:3–9. (In Russ)]
  12. Шепеленко А.Ф., Хацкевич В.Л., Лищенюк О.А. и др. Роль гуморальных маркеров активности воспаления в оценке адекватности стартовой антибактериальной химиотерапии внебольничной пневмонии. Военно-медицинский журнал. 2005;1:25–30. [Shepelenko AF, Khatskevich VL, Lishchenyuk OA, et al. Role of humoral markers of activity of inflammation in assessment of starting antibacterial chemotherapy of community-acquired pneumonia. Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal. 2005;1:25–30. (In Russ)]
  13. Lopez JV, Rojo JM, Rodriguez OM, et al. Fever In Emergency Department: Screening For Severe Disease. Rev Clin Esp. 2008;208(3):130–4. doi: 10.1157/13115820.
  14. Тарасова Л.Н., Черепанова В.В., Мустафина Г.Н., Владимирова С.Г. С-реактивный белок как маркер инфекции у больных острым миелобластным лейкозом. Гематология и трансфузиология. 2009;54(5):27–31. [Tarasova LN, Cherepanova VV, Mustafina GN, Vladimirova SG. C-reactive protein as marker of infection in patients with acute myeloblast leukemia. Gematologiya i transfuziologiya. 2009;54(5):27–31. (In Russ)]
  15. Simon L, Gauvin F, Amre DK, et al. Serum procalcitinin and C-reactive protein levels as markers of bacterial infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Bacter Dis. 2004;39:206–17. doi: 10.1086/421997.
  16. Владимирова С.Г., Тарасова Л.М., Скольская О.Ю., Черепанова В.В. С-реактивный белок как маркер тяжести инфекционного процесса у больных острым миелоидным лейкозом при нейтропении. Терапевтический архив. 2013;85(11):34–40. [Vladimirova SG, Tarasova LM, Skol’skaya OYu, Cherepanova VV. C-reactive protein as marker of severity of infection in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in neutropenia. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2013;85(11):34–40. (In Russ)]
  17. Владимирова С.Г., Тарасова Л.М., Докшина И.А., Черепанова В.В. Оценка чувствительности и специфичности метода определения С-реактивного белка при диагностике инфекционных осложнений у больных острым лимфобластным лейкозом, получающих химиотерапию. Клиническая лабораторная диагностика. 2014;59(11):17–21. [Vladimirova SG, Tarasova LM, Dokshina IA, Cherepanova VV. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of test method for C-reactive protein in diagnosis of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblast leukemia on chemotherapy. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika. 2014;59(11):17–21. (In Russ)]
  18. Антонов В.Г., Козлов В.К. Патогенез онкологических заболеваний: иммунные и биохимические феномены и механизмы. Внеклеточные и клеточные механизмы общей иммунодепрессии и иммунной резистентности. Цитокины и воспаление. 2004;3(1):8–19. [Antonov VG, Kozlov VK. Pathogenesis on oncological diseases: immune and biological phenomena and mechanisms. Extracellular and cellular mechanisms of general immunosuppression and immune resistance. Tsitokiny i vospalenie. 2004;3(1):8–19. (In Russ)]
  19. Kwaan HC. Double hazard of thrombophilia and bleeding in leukemia. Hematol ASH Educ Book. 2007;1:151–7. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2007.1.151.
  20. Галстян Г.М., Берковский А.Л., Зуева А.В. и др. Фактор некроза опухоли, интерлейкин-6, эндотоксин и прокальцитонин при септическом шоке у больных с опухолевыми заболеваниями системы крови. Терапевтический архив. 2002;74(7):56–61. [Galstyan GM, Berkovskii AL, Zueva AV, et al. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, endotoxin, and procalcitonin in septic shock in patients with hematological malignancies. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2002;74(7):56–61. (In Russ)]
  21. Carrigan SD, Scott G, Tabrizian M. Toward resolving the challenges of sepsis diagnosis. Clin Chem. 2004;50(8):1301–14. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2004.032144.
  22. Косякова Н.И., Прохоренко С.В., Прохоренко И.Р. Дисбаланс продукции цитокинов у больных тяжелым хирургическим сепсисом. Иммунология. 2005;5:319–21. [Kosyakova NI, Prokhorenko SV, Prokhorenko IR. Disbalance of cytokine production in patients with severe surgical sepsis. Immunologiya. 2005;5:319–21. (In Russ)]
  23. Козлов В.К. Дисфункция иммунной системы в патогенезе сепсиса: возможности диагностики. Цитокины и воспаление. 2006;5(2):15–28. [Kozlov VK. Immune system dysfunction in pathogenesis of sepsis: possibilities of diagnosis. Tsitokiny i vospalenie. 2006;5(2):15–28. (In Russ)]
  24. ГОСТ Р 53022. Технологии лабораторные клинические. Требования к качеству клинических лабораторных исследований. Часть 3. Правила оценки клинической информативности лабораторных тестов. М., 2008. [GOST Р 53022. Clinical laboratory technologies. Requirements to quality of clinical laboratory investigations. Part 3. Guidelines for evaluation of clinical information value of lab tests. Moscow; 2008. (In Russ)]
  25. Клясова Г.А. Антимикробная терапия. В кн.: Программное лечение заболеваний системы крови: сборник алгоритмов диагностики и протоколов лечения заболеваний системы крови. Под ред. В.Г. Савченко. М.: Практика, 2012. С. 829–53. [Klyasova GA. Antimicrobial therapy. In: Savchenko VG, ed. Programmnoe lechenie zabolevanii sistemy krovi: sbornik algoritmov diagnostiki i protokolov lecheniya zabolevanii sistemy krovi. (Program treatment of hematological diseases: collection of algorithms of diagnosing and treatment protocols of hematological diseases.) Moscow: Praktika Publ.; 2012. p. 829–53. (In Russ)]

Molecular Monitoring of WT1 Gene Expression Degree in Acute Myeloid Leukemias after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

N.N. Mamaev, A.V. Gorbunova, I.M. Barkhatov, Ya.V. Gudozhnikova, T.L. Gindina, V.A. Katerina, E.V. Volchkov, A.L. Alyanskii, E.V. Babenko, O.A. Slesarchuk, N.V. Stancheva, S.N. Bondarenko, B.V. Afanas’ev

R.M. Gorbacheva Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Hematology and Transplantation; Academician I.P. Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022

For correspondence: Nikolai Nikolaevich Mamaev, DSci, Professor, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022; Tel.: +7(812)233-12-43; e-mail:

For citation: Mamaev NN, Gorbunova AV, Barkhatov IM, et al. Molecular Monitoring of WT1 Gene Expression Level in Acute Myeloid Leukemias after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Clinical oncohematology. 2015;8(3):309–20 (In Russ).


Objective. To evaluate the possibility of serial analysis of WT1 gene expression level for prediction and diagnosis of post-transplant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapses.

Methods. Serial analyses of WT1 gene expression were performed using quantitative real-time PCR during the post-transplant period of 34 patients with AML. All patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: unrelated (= 22), related (= 12), including haploidentical (= 4). 5 of 34 patients had AML transformed from the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In addition, the level of donor chimerism and the bone marrow/peripheral blood blast cells counts were evaluated. AML1/ETO (= 4) or EVI1 (= 4) gene expression degrees were measured in 8 patients in order to compare those with the WT1 gene expression.

Results. Based on obtained data on the WT1 gene expression, two equal subgroups of patients were formed. The first one consisted of patients with stable normal expression of the investigated molecular indicator during the post-transplant period, whereas the second group consisted of patients with impaired expression. The initial level of WT1 gene expression almost did not depend on both cytological and cytogenetic AML subtypes. During the post-transplant period, the WT1 gene expression degree correlated with that of AML1/ETO or EVI1. Increased WT1 gene expression take the lead over the decreased donor chimerism and blast cell count increase in bone marrow and blood typical for post-transplant relapses of AML.

Conclusion. The higher level of WT1 gene expression may serve not only as a marker for timely diagnosis of post-transplant relapses in AML patients, but also as a monitoring parameter for testing their treatment quality.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemias, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, WT1 gene expression monitoring, AML1/ETO and EVI1, diagnosis of post-transplant relapses, molecular monitoring of treatment.

Received: March 19, 2015

Accepted: June 1, 2015

Read in PDF (RUS)pdficon


  1. Wertheim GB, Bagg A. Minimal residual disease testing to predict relapse following transplant for AML and high-grade myelodysplastic syndromes. Exp Rev Mol Diagn. 2011;11(4):361–6. doi: 10.1586/erm.11.19.
  2. Mardis ER, Ding L, Dooling DJ, et al. Recurring mutations found by sequencing an acute myeloid leukemia genome. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(11):1058–66. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa0903840.
  3. Rocquain J, Carbuccia N, Trouplin V, et al. Combined mutations of ASXL1, CBL, FLT3, IDH1, IDH2, JAK2, KRAS, NPM1, NRAS, RUNX1, TET2 and WT1 genes in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemias. BMC Cancer. 2010;10(1):401. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-401.
  4. Cilloni D, Gottardi E, De Micheli D, et al. Quantitative assessment of WT1 expression by real time quantitative PCR may be a useful tool for monitoring residual disease in acute leukemia patients. Leukemia. 2002;16(10):2115–21. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2402675.
  5. Cilloni D, Gottardi E, Messa F, et al. WT1 as a universal marker for minimal residual disease detection and quantification in myeloid leukemias and in myelodysplastic syndrome. Acta Hematol. 2004;112(1−2):79–84. doi: 10.1159/000077562.
  6. Cilloni D, Renneville A, Hermitte F, et al. Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) by optimized WT1 assay to enhance risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): A European LeukemiaNet Study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(31):5195–201. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.22.4865.
  7. Nomdedeu JF, Hoyos M, Carricondo M, et al. Bone marrow WT1 levels at diagnosis, post-induction and post-intensification in adult de novo AML. Leukemia. 2013;27(11):2157–64. doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.111.
  8. Yoon JH, Kim HJ, Shin SH, et al. BAALC and WT1 expressions from diagnosis to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: consecutive monitoring in adult patients with core-binding-factor-positive AML. Eur J Haematol. 2013;91(2):112–21. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12142.
  9. Tamaki H, Ogawa H, Inoue K, et al. Increased expression of the Wilms tumor gene (WT1) at relapse in acute leukemia. Blood. 1996;88(11):4396–8.
  10. Ogawa H, Tamaki H, Ikegame K, et al. The usefulness of monitoring WT1 gene transcripts for the prediction and management of relapse following allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute type leukemia. Blood. 2003;101(5):1698–704. doi: 10.1182/blood-2002-06-1831.
  11. Bader P, Niemeyer C, Weber G, et al. WT1 gene expression: useful marker for minimal residual disease in childhood myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia? Eur J Haematol. 2004;73(1):25–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00260.x.
  12. Lange T, Hubmann M, Burkhard R, et al. Monitoring of WT1 expression in PB and CD34+ donor chimerism of BM predicts early relapse in AML and MDS patients after hematopoietic cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning. Leukemia. 2011;25(3):498–505. doi: 10.1038/leu.2010.283.
  13. Ueda Y, Mizutani C, Nannya Y, et al. Clinical evaluation of WT1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood and bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma. 2013;54(7):1450–8. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2012.745074.
  14. Мамаев Н.Н., Горбунова А.В., Гиндина Т.Л. и др. Аллогенная трансплантация гемопоэтических стволовых клеток при миелодиспластических синдромах и клиническое значение гиперэкспрессии гена WT1. Клиническая онкогематология. 2014;7(4):551–63. [Mamayev NN, Gorbunova AV, Gindina TL, et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in myelodysplastic syndromes and clinical significance of WT1 gene overexpression. Klinicheskaya onkogematologiya. 2014;7(4):551–63. (In Russ)]
  15. Heesch S, Goekbuget N, Stroux A, et al. Prognostic implications and expression of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene in adult T-lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2010;95(6):942–9. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2009.016386.
  16. Ujj Z, Buglyo G, Udvardy M, et al. WT1 overexpression affecting clinical outcome in non-Hodgkin lymphomas and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pathol Oncol Res. 2014;20(3):565–70. doi: 10.1007/s12253-013-9729-7.
  17. Drakos E, Rassidakis GZ, Tsioli F, et al. Differential expression of WT1 gene product in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005;13(2):132–7. doi: 10.1097/01.pai.0000143786.62974.66.
  18. Inoue K, Sugiyama H, Ogawa H, et al. WT1 as a new prognostic factor and a new marker for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Blood. 1994;84(9):3071–9.
  19. Inoue K, Ogawa H, Yamagami T, et al. Long–term follow-up of minimal residual disease in leukemia patients by monitoring WT1 (Wilms tumor gene) expression levels. Blood. 1996;88:2267–78.
  20. Inoue K, Ogawa H, Sonoda Y, et al. Aberrant overexpression of the Wilms’ tumor gene (WT1) in human leukemia. Blood. 1997;89(4):1405–12.
  21. Candoni A, Toffoleti E, Gallina R, et al. Monitoring of minimal residual disease by quantitative WT1 gene expression following reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Transplant. 2011;25(2):308–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2010.01251.x.
  22. Kwon M, Martinez-Laperche C, Infante M, et al. Evaluation of minimal residual disease by real-time quantitative PCR of Wilms’ Tumor 1 expression in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Correlation with flow cytometry and chimerism. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012;18(8):1235–42. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.01.012.
  23. Polak J, Hajkova H, Haskovec C, et al. Quantitative monitoring of WT1 expression in peripheral blood before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia – a useful tool for early detection of minimal residual disease. Neoplasma. 2013;60(1):74–82. doi: 10.4149/neo_2013_011.
  24. Frairia C, Aydin S, Riera L, et al. WT1 expression in аcute myeloid leukaemia: a useful marker for improving therapy response evaluation. Blood. 2013;122(21): Abstract 2588.
  25. Alonso-Dominiquez JM, Tenorio M, Velasco D, et al. Correlation of WT1 expression with the burden of total and residual leukemic blasts in bone marrow samples of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Cancer Genet. 2012;205(4):190–1. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2012.02.008.
  26. Zhao XS, Yan CH, Liu DH, et al. Combined use of WT1 and flow cytometry monitoring can promote sensitivity of predicting relapse after allogeneic HSCT without affecting specificity. Ann Hematol. 2013;92(8):1111–9. doi: 10.1007/s00277-013-1733-1.
  27. Yoon J-H, Kim H-J, Kim J-W, et al. Identification of molecular and cytogenetic risk factors for unfavorable core-binding factor-positive adult AML with post remission treatment outcome analysis including transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2014;49(12);1466−74. doi: 101038/bmt.2014.180.
  28. Hosen N, Shirakata T, Nishida S, et al. The Wilm’s tumor gene WT1-GFP knock-in mouse reveals the dynamic regulation of WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. Leukemia. 2007;21(8):1783–91. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2404752.
  29. Huff V. Wilm’s tumours about tumour suppressor genes, an oncogene and chameleon gene. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(2):111–21. doi: 10.1038/nrc3002.
  30. Zhang Q, Zhang Q, Li Q, et al. Monitoring of WT1 and its target gene IRF8 expression in acute myeloid leukemia and their significance. Int J Lab Hematol. 2014;37(4):e67–e71. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.12309.
  31. Мамаев Н.Н., Горбунова А.В., Гиндина Т.Л. и др. Трансплантация гемопоэтических стволовых клеток при остром миелоидном лейкозе с транслокацией t(8;21)(q22;q22). Клиническая онкогематология. 2013;6(4):439–44. [Mamayev NN, Gorbunova AV, Gindina TL, et al. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation. Klinicheskaya onkogematologiya. 2013;6(4):439–44. (In Russ)]
  32. Мамаев Н.Н., Горбунова А.В., Гиндина Т.Л. и др. Стойкое восстановление донорского гемопоэза у больной с посттрансплантационным рецидивом острого миеломонобластного лейкоза с inv(3)(q21q26), моносомией 7 и экспрессией онкогена EVI1 после трансфузий донорских лимфоцитов и использования гипометилирующих агентов. Клиническая онкогематология. 2014;7(1):71–5. [Mamayev NN, Gorbunova AV, Gindina TL, et al. Stable donor hematopoiesis recovery after post-transplantation relapse of acute myeloid leukemia in patient with inv(3)(q21q26), monosomy 7 and EVI1 oncogene overexpression after donor lymphocyte infusions and administration of hypomethylating agents. Klinicheskaya onkogematologiya. 2014;7(1):71–5. (In Russ)]
  33. Messina C, Candoni A, Carraba MG, et al. Wilms’ tumor gene 1 transcript levels in leukopheresis on peripheral blood hematopoietic cells predict relapse risk in patients autografted for acute myeloid leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20(10):1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.06.017.