Current Genetic Models for Prediction of Primary Myelofibrosis

LB Polushkina1, VA Shuvaev1, MS Fominykh1, YuA Krivolapov2, EA Belyakova2, ZP Asaulenko2, EV Motyko1, LS Martynenko1, MP Bakai1, NYu Tsybakova1, SV Voloshin1,3, SS Bessmeltsev1, AV Chechetkin1, IS Martynkevich1

1 Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024

2 II Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015

3 SM Kirov Military Medical Academy, 6 Akademika Lebedeva str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 194044

For correspondence: Lyubov Borisovna Polushkina, PhD in Biology, 16 2-ya Sovetskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191024; e-mail:

For citation: Polushkina LB, Shuvaev VA, Fominykh MS, et al. Current Genetic Models for Prediction of Primary Myelofibrosis. Clinical oncohematology. 2019;12(4):391–7 (In Russ).

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2019-12-4-391-397


Aim. To study the relationship of karyotype, JAK2, CALR, and MPL driver mutations and ASXL1 mutation status with the progression and prediction of primary myelofibrosis (PMF).

Materials & Methods. The trial included 110 PMF patients (38 men and 72 women), median age was 59 years (range 18–82) with median follow-up after diagnosis of 2.6 years (range 0.1–23). The patients were examined for JAK2, CALR, MPL, and ASXL1 mutations. Restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for the analysis of V617F substitution in JAK2 and 515 codon mutation in MPL. CALR (exon 9) and ASXL1 (exon 12) mutation tests were performed using Sanger direct sequencing. In 48 (44 %) out of 110 patients bone marrow cell karyotype was determined. Clinical and hematological parameters and median overall survival (OS) of patients were analyzed with regard to detected genetic aberrations and combinations of them.

Results. JAK2, CALR, MPL mutations were detected in 55 (50 %), 28 (25.5 %), and 7 (6.4 %) out of 110 patients, respectively. Triple negative (TN) status was identified in 20 (18.2 %) out of 110 examined patients. ASXL1 mutations were detected in 22 (20 %) out of 110 patients. Out of 48 patients in 32 (66.7 %) normal karyotype, in 3 (6.3 %) favorable karyotype, in 4 (8.3 %) intermediate-prognosis karyotype, and in 9 (18.7 %) unfavorable karyotype were detected. The comparison of clinical and hematological parameters showed a number of significant differences. JAK2-positive patients had a higher hemoglobin level (median 129 g/L; = 0.021). TN was associated with a high IPSS risk (= 0.011), low hemoglobin level (median 101 g/L; = 0.006), continuing drop in platelet count (median 266 × 109/L; = 0.041), increased lymphocyte count (median 26.9 × 109/L; = 0.001). The detection of terminating mutations in ASXL1 correlated with palpable enlarged spleen (= 0.050), reduced platelet count (median 184 × 109/L; = 0.016), leukocyte count > 25 × 109/L (= 0.046), and blast count ≥ 1 % (< 0.001). Univariate regression analysis showed that terminating mutations in ASXL1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.9; = 0.018), unfavorable karyotype (HR 8.2; < 0.001), and TN (ОР 8.1; < 0.001) had prognostic value for OS. ASXL1 mutation was associated with significantly worse OS in TN patients. Median OS of ASXL1-negative patients without high-risk chromosomal aberrations was significantly longer than in patients with high-risk karyotype and/or ASXL1 mutation.

Conclusion. Several genetic defects in tumor cells are associated with phenotypic manifestations of PMF. Based on the results of cytogenetic analysis and mutation determination of JAK2, CALR, MPL, and ASXL1, patients can be classified in different “genetic” risk groups when PMF is diagnosed.

Keywords: primary myelofibrosis, mutations, karyotype, prediction.

Received: April 8, 2019

Accepted: September 1, 2019

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