Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma in the Era of New Drugs

OV Pirogova, EI Darskaya, VV Porunova, OV Kudyasheva, AG Smirnova, IS Moiseev, EV Babenko, BV Afanas’ev

RM Gorbacheva Scientific Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantation; IP Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022

For correspondence: Ol’ga Vladislavovna Pirogova, MD, PhD, 6/8 L’va Tolstogo str., Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197022; e-mail: dr.pirogova@gmail.com.

For citation: Pirogova OV, Darskaya EI, Porunova VV, et al. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma in the Era of New Drugs. Clinical oncohematology. 2018;11(2):187–91.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-2-187-191


ABSTRACT

Background & Aims. The present retrospective single-center study analysed the impact of high-dose chemotherapy with melphalan with subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) on survival in multiple myeloma (MM) in the era of new induction regimens.

Materials & Methods. The clinical trial included 133 MM patients aged from 31.2 to 78.2 years (the median age was 55.3 years). There were 66 female and 67 male patients. Bortezomib-based regimens as first-line treatment were administered in 133 MM patients, 74 of them received high-dose chemotherapy with melphalan and either single (n = 25), or double (n = 49) auto-HSCT as consolidation therapy in the period from 2006 to 2016.

Results. The overall 5-year survival (OS) rates were 86.5 % for the auto-HSCT treated group vs. 72.9 % for the non-auto-HSCT treated group (= 0.03); 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 64.9 vs. 39 % for the auto-HSCT and non-auto-HSCT treated groups, respectively (= 0.0016). MM relapse/progression occurred more frequently in the non-auto-HSCT treated patients (52.5 vs. 28.4 %; = 0.0016). In multivariate analysis the age above 60 was determined as prognostic factor of lower PFS and increase in relapse/progression rate (= 0.004 and = 0.04, respectively). The variant of monoclonal protein (Bence-Jones myeloma) was determined as prognostic factor of higher OS and decrease in relapse/progression rate (= 0.02 and = 0.04, respectively). Complete nonresponsiveness to induction therapy has proved to be an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS (= 0.04 and = 0.041, respectively). 2-year bortezomib-based maintenance therapy following the auto-HSCT treatment resulted in a statistically significant improvement in 5-year PFS (67.4 vs. 60.7 %; = 0.03) and a decrease in relapse/progression frequency (26.1 vs. 32.1 %; = 0.05).

Conclusion. High-dose chemotherapy with melphalan with subsequent auto-HSCT is an effective MM treatment strategy, and a subsequent long-term maintenance therapy results in a PFS improvement and a decrease in relapse/progression frequency.

Keywords: multiple myeloma, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, maintenance therapy.

Received: November 20, 2017

Accepted: February 9, 2018

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