Antibiotic Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Acute Leukemia

VA Okhmat, GA Klyasova, EN Parovichnikova, VV Troitskaya, EO Gribanova, VG Savchenko

National Medical Hematology Research Center, 4 Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167

For correspondence: Vladimir Aleksandrovich Okhmat, PhD, 4 Novyi Zykovskii pr-d, Moscow, Russian Federation, 125167; Tel.: +7(495)614-92-72; e-mail: okhmatvladimir@mail.ru

For citation: Okhmat VA, Klyasova GA, Parovichnikova EN, et al. Antibiotic Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Acute Leukemia. Clinical oncohematology. 2018;11(1):100-9.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2018-11-1-100-109


ABSTRACT

Aim. To estimate the efficacy of antibiotic treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Materials & Methods. The prospective study (2013 to 2015) included 66 AML and 44 ALL patients receiving 480 chemotherapy cycles within the period of 6 months.

Results. Febrile neutropenia was registered during 242 (50 %) chemotherapy cycles occurring more frequently in AML than in ALL patients (93 % vs. 18 %, p < 0.0001). In AML patients infections were more common during induction and consolidation (98 and 89 %) phases compared to ALL patients who most commonly had infection during induction phase (55 %). Compared to ALL patients, AML patients had lower recovery rates after first-line antibiotic monotherapy (24 % vs. 57 %, < 0.0001), compared to combination therapy (37 % vs. 18 %, = 0.01). The use of beta-lactam antibiotics in ALL patients was associated with lower recovery rates during the induction phase compared to consolidation phase (47 % vs. 72 %, = 0.0004). In cases of granulocytopaenia longer that 14 days the clinical recovery rate with administration of the first-line antibiotics and carbapenems accounted for 23–24 % compared to 47 % with other antimicrobials, more commonly with antifungal (21 %) administration. In patients with fever of unknown origin the monotherapy with first-line antibiotics proved to be successful (45 %). In patients with clinically and microbiologically defined infections the best results were achieved by the combined treatment with the beta-lactam antibiotics and other drugs (43 %).

Conclusion. Antibiotic escalation has proved to be the optimal strategy in treatment of ALL patients and in cases of fever of unknown origin. The efficacy of the beta-lactam antibiotic monotherapy was lower in AML patients during the induction phase as well as in cases of continuous neutropenia (> 14 days) and clinically and microbiologically diagnosed infections. The adding of other antimicrobial administration resulted in the recovery in 37–48 % of cases.

Keywords: acute leukemia, AML, ALL, febrile neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, clinically and microbiologically defined infections, antibiotics.

Received: July 2, 2017

Accepted: October 20, 2017

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