CAR Т-клетки для лечения хронического лимфоцитарного лейкоза: обзор литературы

И.В. Грибкова, А.А. Завьялов

ГБУ «НИИ организации здравоохранения и медицинского менеджмента ДЗМ», ул. Шарикоподшипниковская, д. 9, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115088

Для переписки: Ирина Владимировна Грибкова, канд. биол. наук, ул. Шарикоподшипниковская, д. 9, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115088; тел.: +7(916)078-73-90; e-mail: igribkova@yandex.ru

Для цитирования: Грибкова И.В., Завьялов А.А. CAR Т-клетки для лечения хронического лимфоцитарного лейкоза: обзор литературы. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(2):225–30.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-2-225-230


РЕФЕРАТ

Хронический лимфоцитарный лейкоз (ХЛЛ) является наиболее распространенным злокачественным лимфоидным заболеванием взрослых. Несмотря на появление новых высокоэффективных таргетных препаратов, прогноз у больных с рецидивами и резистентной формой заболевания остается неблагоприятным. CAR Т-клеточная терапия, предполагающая использование Т-лимфоцитов с химерным антигенным рецептором (CAR), продемонстрировала свою эффективность в лечении ряда онкогематологических заболеваний, таких как В-клеточные неходжкинские лимфомы и острый лимфобластный лейкоз. В настоящем обзоре литературы рассматривается опыт применения CAR Т-клеток для лечения ХЛЛ. Представлены преимущества и недостатки данной технологии, а также проблемы, которые еще предстоит решить для внедрения метода в широкую клиническую практику.

Ключевые слова: хронический лимфоцитарный лейкоз, CAR T-клеточная терапия, химерный антигенный рецептор, адоптивная терапия, иммунотерапия.

Получено: 15 декабря 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 10 марта 2021 г.

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COVID-19 у пациентов с онкогематологическими заболеваниями

А.А. Даниленко, С.В. Шахтарина, Н.А. Фалалеева

Медицинский радиологический научный центр им. А.Ф. Цыба — филиал ФГБУ «НМИЦ радиологии» Минздрава России, ул. Королева, д. 4, Обнинск, Калужская область, Российская Федерация, 249036

Для переписки: Анатолий Александрович Даниленко, д-р мед. наук, ул. Королева, д. 4, Обнинск, Калужская область, Российская Федерация, 249036; тел.: +7(909)250-18-10; e-mail: danilenkoanatol@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Даниленко А.А., Шахтарина С.В., Фалалеева Н.А. COVID-19 у пациентов с онкогематологическими заболеваниями. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(2):220–4.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-2-220-224


РЕФЕРАТ

Эпидемия COVID-19, разразившаяся в Ухане (Китай), быстро переросла в пандемию. Высокая смертность от этого заболевания ставит его в ряд наиболее опасных вирусных инфекционных болезней настоящего времени. В то время как наибольшему риску летального исхода подвержены лица пожилого возраста, некоторые сопутствующие заболевания, среди которых вполне могут быть и злокачественные опухоли, также существенно ухудшают течение COVID-19. В силу присущего иммунодефицита, усугубляемого иммуносупрессивной противоопухолевой терапией, ведущее место по влиянию на течение COVID-19 занимают онкогематологические заболевания. В обзоре представлены немногочисленные опубликованные сведения о влиянии коронавирусной инфекции на прогноз у пациентов с опухолями кроветворной и лимфоидной тканей. Кроме того, обсуждаются возможные меры по снижению у этих больных риска летального исхода.

Ключевые слова: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, онкогематологические заболевания, смертность.

Получено: 13 октября 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 15 февраля 2021 г.

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ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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Биотехнология CAR-T и новые возможности лечения опухолевых заболеваний

В.Ю. Павлова1, Е.С. Ливадный2

1 ГАУЗ «Кемеровская областная клиническая больница им. С.В. Беляева», Октябрьский пр-т, д. 22, корп. 2, Кемерово, Российская Федерация, 650066

2 ФГБОУ ВО «Кемеровский государственный медицинский университет», ул. Ворошилова, д. 22а, Кемерово, Российская Федерация, 650056

Для переписки: Вера Юрьевна Павлова, канд. мед. наук, Октябрьский пр-т, д. 22, корп. 2, Кемерово, Российская Федерация, 650066; тел.: +7(951)570-57-86; e-mail: vera.4447.kem@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Павлова В.Ю., Ливадный Е.С. Биотехнология CAR-T и новые возможности лечения опухолевых заболеваний. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(1):149–56.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-1-149-156


РЕФЕРАТ

Злокачественные новообразования как причина смерти занимают 2-е место в мире после сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. CAR T-терапия (chimeric antigen receptor of T-cells) — прогрессивный метод лечения злокачественных опухолей. Использование CAR Т-лимфоцитов относится к адоптивной иммунотерапии. Технология CAR-T основана на «извлечении» клеток иммунной системы (Т-лимфоцитов) из организма, их генетической модификации в целях приобретения ими противоопухолевых свойств с последующей реинфузией пациенту. Преимущество CAR T-терапии в сравнении с другими методами лечения заключается в том, что для распознавания клеток-мишеней Т-лимфоциты не нуждаются в присутствии молекул главного комплекса гистосовместимости 1-го класса (MHC-I). Собранные и проанализированные нами литературные данные свидетельствуют о появлении принципиально нового эффективного метода лечения онкогематологических заболеваний, включая острый лимфобластный лейкоз, хронический лимфолейкоз и неходжкинские лимфомы. На основании клинических исследований доказано преимущество CAR T-терапии в сравнении с другими методами лечения, применяющимися в данной области. Анализ литературы позволил сделать вывод об обоснованности рассмотрения CAR T-терапии как одной из перспективных возможностей воздействия на злокачественную опухоль.

Ключевые слова: адоптивная иммунотерапия, CAR T-лимфоциты, химерный антигенный рецептор.

Получено: 20 сентября 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 1 декабря 2020 г.

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Клеточный препарат с химерным антигенным рецептором NKG2D в CAR T-терапии рецидивов/рефрактерных острых миелоидных лейкозов и миелодиспластического синдрома

К.A. Левчук1, Е.В. Белоцерковская1,2, Д.Ю. Поздняков1, Л.Л. Гиршова1, А.Ю. Зарицкий1, А.В. Петухов1,2,3

1 ФГБУ «НМИЦ им. В.А. Алмазова» Минздрава России, ул. Аккуратова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197341

2 ФГБУН «Институт цитологии РАН», Тихорецкий пр-т, д. 4, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 194064

3 НТУ «Сириус», Олимпийский пр-т, д. 1, Сочи, Российская Федерация, 354340

Для переписки: Ксения Александровна Левчук, ул. Аккуратова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197341; e-mail: levchuk_ka@almazovcentre.ru

Для цитирования: Левчук К.A., Белоцерковская Е.В., Поздняков Д.Ю. и др. Клеточный препарат с химерным антигенным рецептором NKG2D в CAR T-терапии рецидивов/рефрактерных острых миелоидных лейкозов и миелодиспластического синдрома. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(1):138–48.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-1-138-148 


РЕФЕРАТ

NK-клетки как элементы врожденного иммунитета реализуют ключевые реакции противоопухолевого иммунного ответа. NKG2D — активационный трансмембранный рецептор NK-клеток, ответственный за инициацию цитотоксичности в ответ на связывание специфичных лигандов генетически модифицированных клеток. Селективная экспрессия лигандов NKG2D открывает уникальные перспективы для терапии широкого спектра опухолей. Острые миелоидные лейкозы (ОМЛ) — это злокачественные опухоли системы крови, характеризующиеся высоким риском развития рецидивов. Сложность терапевтической стратегии при ОМЛ создает необходимость поиска новых подходов к элиминации опухоли с применением инновационных генетических конструкций. Имеющиеся к настоящему времени CAR T-клеточные препараты, несущие рецептор NKG2D, успешно изучаются в клинических исследованиях у пациентов с ОМЛ, доказывая свой высокий терапевтический потенциал.

Ключевые слова: острые миелоидные лейкозы, химерный антигенный рецептор, адоптивная терапия, NKG2D, NK-клетки.

Получено: 22 августа 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 5 декабря 2020 г.

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Современный взгляд на диагностику и лечение классических Ph-негативных миелопролиферативных заболеваний

А.Л. Меликян1, И.Н. Суборцева1, В.А. Шуваев2,3, Е.Г. Ломаиа4, Е.В. Морозова5, Л.А. Кузьмина1, О.Ю. Виноградова6,7,8, А.Ю. Зарицкий4

1 ФГБУ «НМИЦ гематологии» Минздрава России, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167

2 ФГБУ «Российский НИИ гематологии и трансфузиологии ФМБА России», ул. 2-я Советская, д. 16, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 191024

3 ГБУЗ » Городская клиническая больница им. В.В. Вересаева» ДЗМ, ул. Лобненская, д. 10, Москва, Российская Федерация, 127644

4 ФГБУ «НМИЦ им. В.А. Алмазова» Минздрава России, ул. Аккуратова, д. 2, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197341

5 НИИ детской онкологии, гематологии и трансплантологии им. Р.М. Горбачевой, ФГБОУ ВО «Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет им. акад. И.П. Павлова» Минздрава России, ул. Льва Толстого, д. 6/8, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197022

6 ГБУЗ «Городская клиническая больница им. С.П. Боткина» ДЗМ, 2-й Боткинский пр-д, д. 5, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125284

7 ФГБУ «НМИЦ детской гематологии, онкологии и иммунологии им. Дмитрия Рогачева» Минздрава России, ул. Саморы Машела, д. 1, Москва, Российская Федерация, 117997

8 ФГАОУ ВО «РНИМУ им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России, ул. Островитянова, д. 1, Москва, Российская Федерация, 117997

Для переписки: Анаит Левоновна Меликян, д-р мед. наук, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167; e-mail: anoblood@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Меликян А.Л., Суборцева И.Н., Шуваев В.А. и др. Современный взгляд на диагностику и лечение классических Ph-негативных миелопролиферативных заболеваний. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(1):129–37.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-1-129-137


РЕФЕРАТ

Классические Ph-негативные миелопролиферативные заболевания (МПЗ) — группа опухолей, включающая в себя истинную полицитемию, эссенциальную тромбоцитемию и первичный миелофиброз. В последнее десятилетие существенно изменились подходы к пониманию патогенеза и лечению МПЗ. В то же время продолжается тщательное изучение этиологических факторов, патофизиологических механизмов развития заболевания. Совершенствование методов диагностики, новые подходы к лечению способны снизить риски осложнений и летальных исходов. В обзоре представлены современные методы диагностики, в т. ч. молекулярно-генетический, приведены прогностические шкалы. Кроме того, оцениваются различные методы консервативного лечения. Особое внимание уделено оценке качества жизни пациентов и таргетному лечению заболеваний.

Ключевые слова: миелопролиферативные заболевания, истинная полицитемия, эссенциальная тромбоцитемия, первичный миелофиброз, JAK2V617F, CALR, MPL, прогноз, конституциональные симптомы, MPN10, руксолитиниб.

Получено: 1 сентября 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 10 декабря 2020 г.

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ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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Возможности терапии ингибиторами тирозинкиназ в сниженных дозах у пациентов с хроническим миелолейкозом

М.А. Гурьянова, Е.Ю. Челышева, А.Г. Туркина

ФГБУ «НМИЦ гематологии» Минздрава России, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167

Для переписки: Маргарита Анатольевна Гурьянова, Новый Зыковский пр-д, д. 4, Москва, Российская Федерация, 125167; тел.: +7(985)201-70-40; e-mail: margarita.samtcova@yandex.ru

Для цитирования: Гурьянова М.А., Челышева Е.Ю., Туркина А.Г. Возможности терапии ингибиторами тирозинкиназ в сниженных дозах у пациентов с хроническим миелолейкозом. Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(1):118–28.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-1-118-128


РЕФЕРАТ

Терапия ингибиторами тирозинкиназ (ИТК) у 60–70 % больных хроническим миелоидным лейкозом (ХМЛ) позволяет получить глубокий молекулярный ответ (МО). Однако, несмотря на высокую эффективность ИТК, у многих пациентов лечение сопровождается проявлениями лекарственной токсичности. По результатам клинических исследований вероятность сохранения ремиссии без лечения у больных ХМЛ с глубоким МО составляет примерно 40–60 %. В последнее время большое внимание уделяется персонализированному подходу к терапии при ХМЛ в хронической фазе. Он заключается в модификации дозы ИТК с целью уменьшить или предотвратить развитие нежелательных явлений. В рамках крупных ретроспективных исследований было доказано, что терапия сниженными дозами ИТК у больных с оптимальным ответом является безопасной с точки зрения сохранения достигнутого большого МО и глубокого МО при стандартных дозах ИТК. Наблюдение за пациентом при применении сниженных доз ИТК также рассматривается в рамках проспективных клинических исследований как этап перед отменой терапии. Тем не менее к настоящему времени опубликованы результаты всего 4 подобных исследований. Для подробного изучения вопросов, касающихся длительного наблюдения за больными ХМЛ при использовании сниженных доз ИТК, необходимо проведение проспективных клинических исследований. В настоящем обзоре представлены результаты основных исследований по ведению больных ХМЛ, получающих ИТК в сниженных дозах.

Ключевые слова: хронический миелоидный лейкоз, ингибиторы тирозинкиназ, большой молекулярный ответ, глубокий молекулярный ответ, нежелательные явления, фармакокинетика ингибиторов тирозинкиназ.

Получено: 3 августа 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 20 ноября 2020 г.

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Статистика Plumx русский

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EVI1 -позитивные лейкозы и миелодиспластические синдромы: теоретические и клинические аспекты (обзор литературы)

Н.Н. Мамаев, А.И. Шакирова, Е.В. Морозова, Т.Л. Гиндина

НИИ детской онкологии, гематологии и трансплантологии им. Р.М. Горбачевой, ФГБОУ ВО «Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет им. акад. И.П. Павлова» Минздрава России, ул. Льва Толстого, д. 6/8, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197022

Для переписки: Николай Николаевич Мамаев, д-р мед. наук, профессор, ул. Льва Толстого, д. 6/8, Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация, 197022; e-mail: nikmamaev524@gmail.com

Для цитирования: Мамаев Н.Н., Шакирова А.И., Морозова Е.В., Гиндина Т.Л. EVI1-позитивные лейкозы и миелодиспластические синдромы: теоретические и клинические аспекты (обзор литературы). Клиническая онкогематология. 2021;14(1):103–17.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2021-14-1-103-117


РЕФЕРАТ

Настоящий обзор посвящен анализу теоретической базы и проводимой в клинике НИИ детской онкологии, гематологии и трансплантологии им. Р.М. Горбачевой терапии наиболее неблагоприятных в прогностическом отношении EVI1-позитивных вариантов миелоидных лейкозов и миелодиспластических синдромов. Основной акцент в работе сделан на доказательстве ведущей роли гена EVI1 в нарушении эпигенетической регуляции гемопоэза и, следовательно, целесообразности использования трансплантации аллогенных гемопоэтических стволовых клеток с гипометилирующими агентами и/или транс-ретиноевой кислотой для лечения этих заболеваний.

Ключевые слова: EVI1, острые миелоидные лейкозы, хронический миелоидный лейкоз, миелодиспластический синдром, аллоТГСК, гипометилирующие агенты, транс-ретиноевая кислота.

Получено: 12 сентября 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 6 декабря 2020 г.

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Статистика Plumx русский

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Мантийноклеточная лимфома: история, современные принципы диагностики, лечение (обзор литературы)

Г.С. Тумян

ФГБУ «НМИЦ онкологии им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Гаяне Сепуговна Тумян, д-р мед. наук, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; e-mail: gaytum@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Тумян Г.С. Мантийноклеточная лимфома: история, современные принципы диагностики, лечение (обзор литературы). Клиническая онкогематология. 2020;13(4):366–81.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2020-13-4-366-381


РЕФЕРАТ

Мантийноклеточная лимфома (МКЛ) — гетерогенное заболевание с широким спектром клинических проявлений от редких индолентных случаев, не требующих немедленного начала терапии, до агрессивных, быстро пролиферирующих типов опухоли. Разное клиническое поведение имеет молекулярное обоснование, которое позволило в последней редакции классификации опухолей кроветворной и лимфоидной тканей ВОЗ разделить МКЛ на два варианта: классический (в большинстве случаев) и индолентный. Последние десятилетия расширили наши представления о биологии и механизмах развития заболевания. Это делает возможным в дальнейшем стратифицировать больных на разные группы риска не только в зависимости от клинических факторов (MIPI), но и с учетом молекулярных и биологических особенностей опухоли (индекс пролиферации Ki-67, мутации генов ТР53, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, комплексный кариотип, немутантный статус IGHV). Алгоритмы лечения, основанные на интенсивной химиотерапии с включением цитарабина в высоких дозах, трансплантации аутологичных гемопоэтических стволовых клеток с дальнейшей поддерживающей терапией ритуксимабом, позволили длительно контролировать заболевание у значительного числа больных МКЛ. Применение новых «chemo-free» режимов и рациональных комбинаций (бортезомиб, ингибиторы BTK, леналидомид, венетоклакс) вселяет надежду на возможность ухода от традиционной химиотерапии у определенной части пациентов. Появление новых лекарственных средств с уникальными механизмами действия позволили в какой-то степени снять «печать фатальности» с МКЛ.

Ключевые слова: мантийноклеточная лимфома, лечение.

Получено: 17 июня 2020 г.

Принято в печать: 2 сентября 2020 г.

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Пироптоз — воспалительная форма клеточной гибели

А.А. Вартанян, В.С. Косоруков

ФГБУ «НМИЦ онкологии им. Н.Н. Блохина» Минздрава России, Каширское ш., д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478

Для переписки: Aмалия Арташевна Вартанян, д-р биол. наук, ул. Каширская, д. 24, Москва, Российская Федерация, 115478; тел.: +7(499)324-10-65; e-mail: zhivotov57@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Вартанян А.А., Косоруков В.С. Пироптоз — воспалительная форма клеточной гибели. Клиническая онкогематология. 2020;13(2):129–35.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2020-13-2-129-135


РЕФЕРАТ

Пироптоз, каспаза-1-зависимая воспалительная форма гибели клетки, индуцируется внутриклеточными патогенами или повреждением тканей. Активация прокаспазы-1, необходимая для процессинга провоспалительных цитокинов про-IL-1β и про-IL-18, происходит в макромолекулярных белковых комплексах, называемых инфламмасомами. При инфекциях, вызванных грамотрицательными бактериями, в сборке инфламмасомы участвует каспаза-4 и каспаза-5. Первоначально идентифицированный как защитный механизм врожденного иммунитета, пироптоз сегодня не ограничивается ингибированием размножения внутриклеточных патогенов. В данном обзоре обсуждаются молекулярные механизмы гибели клетки по типу пироптоза и возможности вовлечения пироптоза в гибель опухолевых клеток.

Ключевые слова: клеточная гибель, пироптоз, каспазы, воспаление, врожденный иммунитет.

Получено: 24 декабря 2019 г.

Принято в печать: 17 марта 2020 г.

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Лимфомы с первичным поражением желудка

А.А. Даниленко, С.В. Шахтарина, Н.А. Фалалеева

Медицинский радиологический научный центр им. А.Ф. Цыба, филиал ФГБУ «НМИЦ радиологии» Минздрава России, ул. Королева, д. 4, Калужская обл., Обнинск, Российская Федерация, 249036

Для переписки: Анатолий Александрович Даниленко, д-р мед. наук, ул. Королева, д. 4, Калужская обл., Обнинск, Российская Федерация, 249036; тел.: +7(909)250-18-10; e-mail: danilenkoanatol@mail.ru

Для цитирования: Даниленко А.А., Шахтарина С.В., Фалалеева Н.А. Лимфомы с первичным поражением желудка. Клиническая онкогематология. 2020;13(1): 95–103.

DOI: 10.21320/2500-2139-2020-13-1-95-103


РЕФЕРАТ

Лимфомы с первичным поражением желудка (ЛППЖ) встречаются чаще лимфом с вовлечением какого-либо другого органа и охватывают широкий спектр иммуноморфологических вариантов — от индолентной из клеток маргинальной зоны до агрессивной диффузной В-крупноклеточной лимфомы. ЛППЖ не имеют характерных клинических проявлений, в связи с чем в ряде случаев может быть установлен ошибочный диагноз. Вследствие редкости ЛППЖ многие связанные с ними вопросы до сих пор остаются не решенными, что нашло отражение в настоящем обзоре.

Ключевые слова: лимфомы с первичным поражением желудка, диффузная В-крупноклеточная лимфома, MALT-лимфома, Helicobacter pylori.

Получено: 29 июля 2019 г.

Принято в печать: 5 декабря 2019 г.

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